Sequenced Integration and the Identification of a Problem-Solving Approach Through a Learning Process
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California University of Pennsylvania
Peter C. Cormas   

California University of Pennsylvania, 250 University Ave, 15419 California, PA, United States
Publish date: 2016-06-29
EURASIA J. Math., Sci Tech. Ed 2016;12(9):2557–2574
Preservice teachers (N=27) in two sections of a sequenced, methodological and process integrated mathematics/science course solved a levers problem with three similar learning processes and a problem-solving approach, and identified a problem-solving approach through one different learning process.

Material and methods:
Research questions were answered by using the constant comparison method.

Preservice teachers solved a total integration problem with the similar learning processes: conjecture and test, 48%, reason, 44%, and experiment and collect data, 41%. Although the problem was solved by three similar learning processes, and problem-solving or inquiry: 26 out of the 27 preservice teachers categorized the problem as one of mathematics because of its association with formulas, equations, and numbers, 89%.

The identification of formulas, equations, and numbers, which is not shared with science, signals a difference in the disciplines and is evidence of PST learning. The identification of the difference between disciplines may be associated with a sequenced integration, a form of integration which allows problem-solving in depth and enriches an understanding of epistemology. The implication for this study is that the current movement towards total, enhanced, and parallel integration, and other STEM connections, may not allow students to strongly enrich aspects of mathematics learning.