A Network Meta-Analysis on the Effects of Information and Communication Technology on Students’ Learning Achievement in Taiwan
Yi-Horng Lai 1  
More details
Hide details
Department of Healthcare Administration, Oriental Institute of Technology, New Taipei City, TAIWAN
Publish date: 2019-01-14
EURASIA J. Math., Sci Tech. Ed 2019;15(3):em1675
Computer technology has been used in classrooms for many years and yet many educators still do not understand its effectiveness. In addition, with the Internet technology becomes increasingly mature and more popular, instructors of multimedia-based CAI are now facing the issue of whether or not they should upgrade their technologies under limited budget. In this study, a network meta-analysis was performed to synthesize existing research comparing the effects of different types of CAI versus the traditional instruction (TI) on students’ learning achievement in Taiwan. 34 studies obtained from Taiwan’s National Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations were reviewed systematically, and their quantitative data was transformed into effect size (ES). The results of this study demonstrate that CAI is more effective than TI in students’ learning achievement in Taiwan. Furthermore, the effect of CAI increases as information technology improves and the effect of Internet-based CAI is better than that of multimedia-based CAI. To improve the effect of CAI, this paper suggests that schools use Internet-based CAI instead of multimedia-based CAI.
Chang, I. T. (2002). A study of the influence of web-based learning in mathematics achievements, attitude forward mathematics, and attitude forward computer, for elementary school students (Master’s theses). National Pingtung University of Education, Taiwan.
Chang, L. C. (2004). A Study of the relationship between the guided e-Learning Model and learning achievement in learning mathematics of junior high school (Master’s theses). Providence University, Taiwan.
Chang, M. L. (2011). The study of building interactive platform on computer assisted instruction- a case of electronics professional course in vocational high school (Master’s theses). National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Taiwan.
Chen, C. (2003). Study on merging information technology into ‘nine-year coherent curriculum on earth science’ creative teaching - an example to 921-earthquake virtual reality education (Master’s theses). National University of Tainan, Taiwan.
Chen, C. A. (2002). Third grade teaching students to use computer software research in fractions and decimals learning (Master’s theses). National Pingtung University of Education, Taiwan.
Chen, Y. F. (2007). Research on learning effect of area concept for sixth graders by dynamic GSP (Master’s theses). National Taipei University of Education, Taiwan.
Chiu, C. C. (2002a). A study of applying multimedia on CAI to develop digital circuit motor-skill learning at senior vocational high schools (Master’s theses). National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan.
Chiu, L. H. (2002b). A study of building an e-learning system on plant garden (Master’s theses). National Taipei University of Education, Taiwan.
Chuang, B. C. (2006). Examining the effects of using computer-assisted instruction on third graders’ mathematical learning in fraction (Master’s theses). Ming-Dao University, Taiwan.
Fan, K. R. (2003). The effective learning using interactive simulation lab to junior high school students’ physical and chemical knowledge (Master’s theses). National Chiao-Tung University, Taiwan.
Fong, D. S. (2000). Construction of elementary school online learning system of Chinese characters and effectiveness evaluation (Master’s theses). National University of Tainan, Taiwan.
Hannafin, M., Hannafin, K., Hooper, S., Rieber, L., & Kini, A. (1996). Research on and research with emerging technologies. In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of Research for Educational Communications and Technology. New York: Simon & Schuster, Macmillan.
Higgins, J. P. T., Thompson, S. G., Deeks, J. J., & Altman, D. G. (2003). Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. Education and Debate, 327(7414), 557-560.
Hsieh, S. M. (2012). A study of the effects of computer-assisted instruction on the third-grader in learning conception of area (Master’s theses). National University of Tainan, Taiwan.
Hsu, C. S. (2005). Computer-aided design and practice exercises website - the example in the three-digit addition and subtraction (Master’s theses). National Pingtung University of Education, Taiwan.
Hu, S. L. (2012). A study of the effects of computer-aided instruction by GeoGebra- figures illustration of trigonometric functions for senior vocational high school (Master’s theses). Chung-Hua University, Taiwan.
Hung, Z. H. (2008). GeoGebra study the effectiveness of teaching secondary - the example in high school trigonometric graphics (Master’s theses). Chung-Hua University, Taiwan.
Ko, C. C. (2007). The research of elementary school’s teachers use the computer-assisted instruction to the common factor and common multiple teaching (Master’s theses). National Chiayi University, Taiwan.
Lai, M. S. (2004). The study of junior high school students learning achievement and attitude affected by internet-assisted instruction of physics-chemistry (Master’s theses). Tzu-Chi University, Taiwan.
Lai, Y. R. (2002). A study of learning styles on natural science virtual-lab by using fuzzy inference rules (Master’s theses). National University of Tainan, Taiwan.
Li, I. S. (2006). The effectiveness of online test verses pen-based test–exemplified by test of academic proficiency in computer software application (Master’s theses). National Kaohsiung Normal University, Taiwan.
Liao, Y. K. C. (2007). Effects of computer-assisted instruction on students’ achievement in Taiwan: A meta-analysis. Computers and Education, 48(2), 216-233.
Lin, C. M. (2003). Use of language teaching media influence learning Chinese characters stroke by stroke - Hualien County on Elementary second graders as an example (Master’s theses). National Taichung University of Education, Taiwan.
Liu, P. P. (2001). Use of computer-aided software Interactive Physics concept in teaching junior high school physics and chemistry courses mechanics - with linear motion section as an example (Master’s theses). Chung-Hua University, Taiwan.
Liu, W. M. (2010). Effects of personalized contexts in computer- assisted instruction of elementary algebra word problems (Master’s theses). National Taiwan Ocean University, Taiwan.
Lu, Y. S. (2007). Research on the use of information technology to enhance students’ spatial ability - a comparative analysis of existing software and the effectiveness of teacher-made media (Master’s theses). National Chiayi University, Taiwan.
Mojtahedzadeh, R., Mohammadi, A., Emami, A. H., & Rahmani, S. (2014). Comparing live lecture, internet-based & computer-based instruction: A randomized controlled trial. Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 28, 136. Retrieved from
Mumtaz, S. (2006). Factors affecting teachers’ use of information and communications technology: a review of the literature. Journal of Information Technology for Teacher Education, 9(3), 319-342.
Natarajan, M. (2006). Use of online technology for multimedia education. Information Services & Use, 26(3), 249-256. Retrieved from
National Research Council (1996). National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Retrieved from
Rücker, G. (2012). Network Meta-Analysis, Electrical Networks and Graph Theory. Research Synthesis Methods, 3(4), 312-324.
Rücker, G., Schwarzer, G., Krahn, U., & König, J. (2018). Network Meta-Analysis using Frequentist Methods. Retrieved from http://meta-analysis-with-r.or....
Schwarzer, G., Carpenter, J. R., & Rücker, G. (2015). Meta-Analysis with R. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
Shao, M. C. (2002). Research network computer assisted instruction designed to construct teaching through problem-solving activities in the country - decimal discipline division concept as an example (Master’s theses). National University of Tainan, Taiwan.
Taiwanese National Central Library (2017). About us. National Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations in Taiwan. Retrieved from
Tasi, S. R. (2010). A research of integrating information technology into the development of eLearning system and digital teaching materials of quantitative relationships for the fifth graders (Master’s theses). Asia University, Taiwan.
Tsai, C. C. (2002). The study on elementary english teaching and learning computer system using Hyperbook technology (Master’s theses). Shih-Hsin University, Taiwan.
Utts, J., Sommer, B., Acredolo, C., Maher, M.W., & Matthews, H. R. (2017). A Study Comparing Traditional and Hybrid Internet-Based Instruction in Introductory Statistics Classes. Journal of Statistics Education, 11(3).
Wu, C. I. (2008). Research on the effectiveness of GeoGebra computer assisted instruction (Master’s theses). Chung-Hua University, Taiwan.
Wu, H. C. (2012). Using multiplayer online game models in computer-assisted instruction with English vocabulary learning as an example (Master’s theses). Chinese Culture University, Taiwan.
Wu, R. K. (2002). Build on the internet with Chinese language learning system effectiveness research (Master’s theses). National University of Tainan, Taiwan.
Yao, W. R. (2006). Evaluate the effectiveness of GSP Junior triangle remedial teaching concepts (Master’s theses). National Kaohsiung Normal University, Taiwan.
Yeh, S. Y. (2012). The study of the effects of the multimedia computer on the elementary school student’s social field learning (Master’s theses). Mingdao University, Taiwan.
Yu, C. R. (2002). A study of learning styles on natural science virtual-lab by using neural networks (Master’s theses). National University of Tainan, Taiwan.
Yu, L. H. (2003). Kaohsiung vocational students to use GSP effectiveness of learning software research trigonometric (Master’s theses). National Kaohsiung Normal University, Taiwan.
Yu, Z. Y. (2013). Integrating Geogebra into mathematics lessons: its effects on ninth graders’ quadratic function learning and the teacher’s TPACK development (Master’s theses). National University of Tainan, Taiwan.