A Path Analysis of Student Interest in STEM, with Specific Reference to Qatari Students
More details
Hide details
Social and Economic Survey Research Institute (SESRI), Qatar University, Doha, Qatar
Abdellatif Sellami   

Social and Economic Survey Research Institute (SESRI), Qatar University, Doha, Qatar, Tel: (+974) 4403-5761
Online publish date: 2017-08-23
Publish date: 2017-08-23
EURASIA J. Math., Sci Tech. Ed 2017;13(9):6045–6067
This study sought to explore the factors that help predict students’ interest in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) in Qatar. Drawing on recent work in the field, the present paper examines the intersection of personal characteristics (gender and grade level) and contextual (teacher) variables, and their association with interest in STEM. The study involved a nation-wide survey of preparatory and secondary levels of education in Qatar implemented in 2015, and data from a sample of 660 preparatory (middle) and secondary (high) school students. Factor analysis extracted five valid dimensions and a path analytic model suggested that student interest in STEM is influenced by teachers, perceptions of homework assignments, self-confidence and intention to pursue further study. Gender and level of education were also identified as variables likely to affect student interest in a STEM field. The paper concludes with important recommendations for policy and suggestions for further study and research.
Abdulwahed, M., Ghani, S., Hasna, M. O., & Hamouda, A. (2013). Life is engineering program: Impact of an engineering outreach project in K-12. 2013 IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON). Technische Universitat Berling, Berlin Germany, 827-833. doi:10.1109/educon.2013.6530202.
Ainley, M. (2012). Students’ interest and engagement in classroom activities. In S. L. Christenson, A. L. Reschly, and C. Wylie (Eds.). Handbook of Research on Student Engagement, 283–302. New York, NY: Springer.
Ainley, M., Hidi, S., & Berndorff, D. (2002). Interest, learning, and the psychological processes that mediate their relationship. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(3), 545.
Anderson, L. W., & Bourke, S. F. (2000). Assessing affective characteristics in the schools. London: Routledge.
Baldi, S., Jin, Y., Skemer, M., Green, P. J., & Herget, D. (2007). Highlights from PISA 2006: Performance of U.S. 15-Year-Old Students in Science and Mathematics Literacy in an International Context. National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC. Retrieved from:
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
Baram-Tsabari, A., & Yarden, A. (2009). Identifying meta‐clusters of students’ interest in science and their change with age. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 46(9), 999-1022.
Barnett, C. (2015). Human capital and the future of the Gulf. Centre for Strategic and International Studies. New York: Rowman & Littlefield. Retrieved from:
Becker, K., & Park, K. (2011). Effects of integrative approaches among science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) subjects on students’ learning: A preliminary meta-analysis. Journal of STEM Education: Innovations and Research, 12(5/6), 23.
Beechler, S., & Woodward, I. C. (2009). The global “war for talent”. Journal of International Management, 15(3), 273-285. doi:10.1016/j.intman.2009.01.002.
Beggs, J. M., Bantham, J. H., & Taylor, S. (2008). Distinguishing the factors influencing college students’ choice of a major. College Student Journal, 42, 381-394.
Bénabou, R., & Tirole, J. (2002). Self-confidence and personal motivation. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 117(3), 871-915. Retrieved from:
Berrebi, C., Martorell, F., & Tanner, J. C. (2009). Qatar’s labor markets at a crucial crossroad. The Middle East Journal, 63(3), 421-442. doi:10.3751/63.3.14.
Bettinger, E. P., & Long, B. T. (2005). Do faculty serve as role models? The impact of instructor gender on female students. The American Economic Review, 95(2), 152-157. Retrieved from:
Blazar, D. (2016). Teacher and teaching effects on students’ academic performance, attitudes, and behaviors. Doctoral dissertation, Harvard Graduate School of Education. Retrieved from:
Bloom, J. (2007). (Mis)reading social class in the journey towards college: Youth development in urban America. Teachers College Record, 109, 343-368.
Boe, M. V., Henriksen, E. K., Lyons, T., & Schreiner, C. (2011). Participation in science and technology: Young people’s achievement-related choices in late modern societies. Studies in Science Education, 47(1), 37–72. doi:10.1080/03057267.2011.549621.
Bong, M., & Clark, R. E. (1999). Comparison between self-concept and self-efficacy in academic motivation research. Educational Psychologist, 34(3), 139-153.
Bong, M., & Skaalvik, E. M. (2003). Academic self-concept and self-efficacy: How different are they really? Educational Psychology Review, 15(1), 1-40.
Bouhlila, D. S. (2011). The quality of secondary education in the Middle East and North Africa: What can we learn from TIMSS’ results? Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 41(3), 327-352, doi:10.1080/03057925.2010.539887.
Brewer, D. J., Augustine, C. H., Zellman, G. L., Ryan, G. W., Goldman, C. A., & Ryan, G. (2007). Education for a New Era: Design and implementation of K–12 education reform in Qatar. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. Retrieved from:
Business Higher Education Forum (BHEF). (2010). Increasing the number of STEM graduates: Insights from the U.S. STEM Education and Modeling Project. Retrieved from:
Carter, G. (2011). The war for talent. Australasian BioTechnology, 21(1), 14.
Cates, B. L., & Skinner, C. H. (2000). Getting remedial mathematics students to prefer homework with 20% and 40% more problems: An investigation of the strength of the interspersing procedure. Psychology in the Schools, 37, 339-347. doi:10.1002/1520-6807(200007)37:43.0.CO;2-7.
Chen X., & Soldner M. (2013). STEM Attrition: College students’ paths into and out of STEM fields. IES National Center for Education Studies, U.S Department of Education. Retrieved from:
Chen, C. H., & Zimitat, C. (2006). Understanding Taiwanese students’ decision-making factors regarding Australian international higher education. International Journal of Educational Management, 20(2), 91-100. doi:10.1108/09513540610646082.
Cleveland, L. M., Olimpo, J. T., & DeChenne-Peters, S. E. (2017). Investigating the Relationship between Instructors’ Use of Active-Learning Strategies and Students’ Conceptual Understanding and Affective Changes in Introductory Biology: A Comparison of Two Active-Learning Environments. CBE-Life Sciences Education, 16(2), ar19. doi:10.1187/cbe.16-06-0181.
Crisp, G., Nora, A., & Taggart, A. (2009). Student characteristics, pre-college, college, and environmental factors as predictors of majoring in and earning a STEM degree: An analysis of students attending a Hispanic serving institution. American Educational Research Journal, 46, 924–942. doi:10.3102/0002831209349460.
De Bel-Air, F. (2014). Demography, migration, and labour market in Qatar. Explanatory Note, Gulf Labour Market and Migration (GLMM), 8/2014. Migration Policy Center (MPC) and the Gulf Research Center (GRC). Retrieved from:
Dennen, V. P., Aubteen Darabi, A., & Smith, L. J. (2007). Instructor–learner interaction in online courses: The relative perceived importance of particular instructor actions on performance and satisfaction. Distance Education, 28(1), 65-79. doi:10.1080/01587910701305319.
Eaton, L., Sheppard, S., & Chen, H. (2014). Students’ perspectives on homework and problem sets in STEM courses. 121st American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Conference and Exposition, Indianaplois, June 15-18, 2014.
Eccles, J. S. (1994). Understanding women’s educational and occupational choices. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18(4), 585–609.
Etlinger, H. (2014). Expanding the Role of Homework Assignments. The National Teaching & Learning Forum, 23(6), 3-5.
Forbes, A., & Skamp, K. (2014). ‘Because we weren’t actually teaching them, we thought they weren’t learning’: Primary teacher perspectives from the MyScience Initiative. Research in Science Education, 44(1), 1-25.
Fouad, N. A., Hackett, G., Smith, P. L., Kantamneni, N., Fitzpatrick, M., Haag, S., & Spencer, D. (2010). Barriers and supports for continuing in mathematics and science: Gender and educational level differences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77, 361–373. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2010.06.004.
Freeman, S., Eddy, S. L., McDonough, M., Smith, M. K., Okoroafor, N., Jordt, H., & Wenderoth, M. P. (2014). Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(23), 8410-8415. doi:10.1073/pnas.1319030111.
Ganley, C. M., & Lubienski, S. T. (2016). Mathematics confidence, interest, and performance: Examining gender patterns and reciprocal relations. Learning and Individual Differences, 47, 182-193. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2016.01.002.
Gasiewski, J. A., Eagan, M. K., Garcia, G. A., Hurtado, S., & Chang, M. J. (2012). From gatekeeping to engagement: A multicontextual, mixed method study of student academic engagement in introductory STEM courses. Research in Higher Education, 53(2), 229–261. doi:10.1007/s11162-011-9247-y.
General Secretariat for Development Planning (GSDP). (2008). Qatar National Vision 2030. Retrieved from: on 08/04/2015.
General Secretariat for Development Planning (GSDP). (2011). Qatar national development strategy 2011–2016 (NDS). Retrieved from:
General Secretariat for Development Planning (GSDP). (2012). Qatar’s third national human development report: Expanding the capacities of Qatari youth. Retrieved from:
Goldman, A. D., & Penner, A. M. (2014). Exploring international gender differences in mathematics self-concept. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 21(4), 403-418. doi:10.1080/02673843.2013.847850.
Gonzalez, G., Karoly, L. A., Constant, L., Salem, H., & Goldman, C. A. (2008). Facing human capital challenges of the 21st century: Education and labor market initiatives in Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates, 786. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Education.
Gormally, C., Brickman, P., Hallar, B., & Armstrong, N. (2009). Effects of inquiry-based learning on students’ science literacy skills and confidence. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 3(2), 16. doi:10.20429/ijsotl.2009.030216.
Greenwood, C., Harrison, M., & Vignoles, A. (2011). The labour market value of STEM qualifications and occupations. London: Royal Academy of Engineering.
Griffith, A. L. (2010). Persistence of women and minorities in STEM field majors: Is it the school that matters? Economics of Education Review, 29(6), 911–922. doi:10.1016/j.econedurev.2010.06.010.
Hall, C., Dickerson, J., Batts, D., Kauffmann, P., & Bosse, M. (2011). Are we missing opportunities to encourage interest in STEM fields? Journal of Technology Education, 23(1), 32–46. doi:10.21061/jte.v23i1.a.4.
Hasni, A., & Potvin, P. (2015). Student’s interest in science and technology and its relationships with teaching methods, Family context and self-efficacy. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 10(3), 337-366. doi:10.12973/ijese.2015.249a.
Hayden, K., Ouyang, Y., Scinski, L., Olszewski, B., & Bielefeldt, T. (2011). Increasing student interest and attitudes in STEM: Professional development and activities to engage and inspire learners. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 11(1), 47–69.
Heaverlo, C. (2011). STEM development: A study of 6th-12th grade girls’ interest and confidence in mathematics and science. Graduate Theses and Dissertations. Paper 10056. Retrieved from:
Hidi, S., & Renninger, A. (2006). The four-phase model of interest development. Educational Psychologist, 41, 111–127.
Hidi, S., Renninger, A., & Krapp, A. (2004). Interest, a motivational variable that combines affective and cognitive functioning. In D. Y. Dai, & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), Motivation, emotion, and cognition: Integrative perspectives on intellectual functioning and development, 89–115. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hill, C., Corbett, C., & St Rose, A. (2010). Why so few? Women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Washington, DC: American Association of University Women (AAUW). Retrieved from:
Hill, C., Rowan, B., and Ball, D. L. (2005). Effects of teachers’ mathematical knowledge for teaching on student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 42(2), 371–406.
Hilton, T.L., & Lee, V.E. (1988). Student interest and persistence in science: Changes in the educational pipeline in the last decade. The Journal of Higher Education, 59(5), 510–526. doi:10.2307/1981701.
Hutcheson G. & Sofroniou N. (1999). The multivariate social scientist: Introductory statistics using generalized linear models. London: Sage Publication.
Ibnouf, A., Dou, L., & Knight, J. (2014). The evolution of Qatar as an education hub: Moving to a knowledge-based economy. In J. Knight (Ed.), International education hubs: Student, talent, knowledge-innovation models, 43-61. New York: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7025-6.
Ing, M., & Nylund-Gibson, K. (2013). Linking early science and mathematics attitudes to long-term science, technology, engineering, and mathematics career attainment: Latent class analysis with proximal and distal outcomes. Educational Research and Evaluation, 19(6), 510–524. doi:10.1080/13803611.2013.806218.
Ingersoll, R., Merrill, L., & May, H. (2014). What are the effects of teacher education and preparation on beginning teacher attrition? CPRE Research Reports. Retrieved from:
Jiwaji, A. (2014). Shift in strategy required to satisfy GCC skills shortages. Business in Qatar Magazine. Retrieved from:
Joyce, A. (2014): Stimulating interest in STEM careers among students in Europe: Supporting career choice and giving a more realistic view of STEM at work. European Schoolnet, Brussels. Retrieved from: http://www.educationandemploye....
Kitsantas, A., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2009). College students’ homework and academic achievement: The mediating role of self-regulatory beliefs. Metacognition and Learning, 4(2), 97–110. doi: 10.1007/s11409-008-9028-y.
Krapp, A. (2007). An educational-psychological conceptualisation on interest. International Educational Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 7, 5-21. doi:10.1007/s10775-007-9113-9.
Krapp, A., & Prenzel, M. (2011). Research on interest in science: Theories, methods, and findings. International Journal of Science Education, 33(1), 27-50. doi:10.1080/09500693.2011.518645.
Kuechler, W. L., McLeod, A., & Simkin, M. G. (2009). Why don’t more students major in IS? Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education, 7, 463-488.
Land, K. C. (1969). Principles of path analysis. Sociological Methodology, 1, 3-37.
Lee, J., & Stankov, L. (2013). Higher-order structure of motivation, self-beliefs, learning strategies, and attitudes toward school and its prediction of PISA 2003 mathematics scores. Learning and Individual Differences, 26, 119–130. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2013.05.004.
Louie, V. (2007). Who makes the transition to college? Why we should care? What we know, and what we need to do. Teachers College Record, 109(10), 2-3.
Mahoney, M. P. (2010). Student attitude toward STEM: Development of an instrument for high school STEM-based programs (Unpublished PhD dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. doi:10.21061/jots.v36i1.a.4.
Maltese, A. V., & Tai, R. H. (2010). Eyeballs in the fridge: Sources of early interest in science. International Journal of Science Education, 32(5), 669–685. doi:10.1080/09500690902792385.
Maltese, A. V., & Tai, R. H. (2011). Pipeline persistence: Examining the association of educational experiences with earned degrees in STEM among US students. Science Education, 95(5), 877–907. doi:10.1002/sce.20441.
Marshall, J. C., Horton, B., & White, C. (2009). EQUIPping teachers: A protocol to guide and improve inquiry-based instruction. The Science Teacher, 76(4), 46–53.
Mazzarol, T., & Soutar, G. N. (2002). “Push-pull” factors influencing international student destination choice. International Journal of Educational Management, 16(2), 82-90. doi:10.1108/09513540210418403.
McDonough, P. M. (2004). The school-to-college transition: Challenges and prospects. Washington, DC: American Council on Education, Center for Policy Analysis. Retrieved from:
Michaels, E., Handfield-Jones, H., & Axelrod, B. (2001). The war for talent. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business Press.
Ministry of Development Planning and Statistics (2015). Qatar’s Fourth National Human Development Report. Realising Qatar National Vision 2030: The Right to Development. Retrieved from:
Morony, S., Kleitman, S., Lee, Y. P., & Stankov, L. (2013). Predicting achievement: Confidence vs self-efficacy, anxiety, and self-concept in Confucian and European countries. International Journal of Educational Research, 58, 79–96. doi:10.1016/j.ijer.2012.11.002.
Mullis, I. V. S., Martin, M. O, Foy, P, & Hooper, M. (2016). TIMSS 2015 International Results in Mathematics. TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center at Boston College. Retrieved from:
Mullis, I. V. S., Martin, M. O., & Foy, P. (2009). TIMSS 2007 International Mathematics Report. Findings from IEA’s trends in international mathematics and science study at the fourth and eighth grades. Chestnut Hill, MA: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Boston College.
National Research Council. (2011). Successful K-12 STEM education: Identifying effective approaches in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) (2010). PISA 2009 Results: What Students Know and Can Do – Student Performance in Reading, Mathematics and Science (Volume I). Retrieved from:
Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) (2014). PISA 2012 results in focus: What 15 year olds know and what they can do with what they know. Retrieved from:
Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) (2016). PISA 2015 Results in Focus. Retrieved from:
Osborne, J., Simon, S., & Collins, S. (2003). Attitudes towards science: A review of the literature and its implications. International Journal of Science Education, 25(9), 1049–1079. doi:10.1080/0950069032000032199.
Osman, I., & Anouze, A. (2014). A cognitive analytics management framework (CAM–Part 3): Critical skills shortage, higher education trends, education value chain framework, government strategy. In I. Osman, A. Anouze, & A. Emrouznejad (Eds.), Handbook of research on strategic performance management and measurement using data envelopment analysis, 190–234. Hershey, PA: Business Science Reference, IGI Global. doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-4474-8.ch003.
Oxford Strategic Consulting (2015). Maximizing Qatari talent – Executive summary. Oxford Strategic Consulting. Retrieved from: http://www.oxfordstrategiccons....
Oxford Strategic Consulting (2016). Qatar employment report: Insights for 2016. Oxford Strategic Consulting. Retrieved from: http://www.oxfordstrategiccons....
Pimpa, N. (2003). The influence of family on Thai student choices of international education. The International Journal of Educational Management, 17(5), 211-219. doi:10.1108/09513540310484931.
Potvin, P., & Hasni, A. (2014). Interest, motivation and attitude towards science and technology at K-12 levels: a systematic review of 12 years of educational research. Studies in Science Education, 50(1), 85-129. doi:10.1080/03057267.2014.881626.
Price, I., Matzdorf, L., & Agahi, R. (2003). The impact of facilities on student choice of university. International Journal of Educational Management, 21(10), 212-222. doi:10.1108/02632770310493580.
Price, J. (2010). The effect of instructor race and gender on student persistence in STEM fields. Economics of Education Review, 29(6), 901-910. doi:10.1016/j.econedurev.2010.07.009.
Qatar University. (2017). Qatar University Book of Trends. Doha, Qatar: Qatar University.
Renninger, K. A. & Hidi, S. (2011). Revisiting the conceptualization, measurement, and generation of interest. Educational Psychologist, 46(3), 168-184, doi:10.1080/00461520.2011.587723.
Rittmayer, A. D., & Beier, M. E. (2008). Overview: Self-efficacy in STEM. SWE-AWE CASEE Overviews. Retrieved from:
Rock, C. (2010). Irish secondary school students’ intention to pursue higher education: an investigation to identify the strongest predictors. Student Psychology Journal, 1, 77-93.
Rugh, W. A. (2002). Arab education: Tradition, growth and reform. The Middle East Journal, 396-414. Retrieved from:
Sadler, P. M., Sonnert, G., Coyle, H. P., Cook-Smith, N., & Miller, J. L. (2013). The influence of teachers’ knowledge on student learning in middle school physical science classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 50(5), 1020-1049. doi:10.3102/0002831213477680.
Said, Z. (2016). Science education reform in Qatar: Progress and challenges. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 12(8), 2253-2265. doi:10.12973/eurasia.2016.1301a.
Said, Z., Summers, R., Abd-El-Khalick, F., & Wang, S. (2016). Attitudes toward science among grades 3 through 12 Arab students in Qatar: findings from a cross-sectional national study. International Journal of Science Education, 38(4), 621-643. doi:10.1080/09500693.2016.1156184.
Sarsons, H., & Xu, G. (2015). Confidence Men? Gender and Confidence: Evidence among Top Economists. Harvard University, Department of Economics, Littauer Center, 1-26. Retrieved from:
Schiefele, U. (2009). Situational and individual interest. In K. R. Wentzel., & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Shapiro, E. S. (1996). Academic skills problems: Direct assessment and intervention. New York: Guilford.
Shediac, R., & Samman, H. (2010). Meeting the employment challenge in the GCC: The need for a holistic strategy. Abu Dhabi, U.A.E.: Booz & Co. Retrieved from: on 09/04/15.
Sjaastad, J. (2012). Sources of inspiration: The role of significant persons in young people’s choice of science in higher education. International Journal of Science Education, 34(10), 1615-1636. doi:10.1080/09500693.2011.590543.
Slapcoff, M., Dobler, E., & Tovar, M. (Eds.). (2011). Using coursework to enhance students’ understanding of research/scholarship: A report from the Inquiry Network. Montreal: Teaching and Learning Services, McGill University.
Smolira, J. C. (2008). Student perceptions of online homework in introductory finance courses. Journal of Education for Business, 84(2), 90−95. doi:10.3200/JOEB.84.2.90-95.
St. John, E. P. (2002). The access challenge: Rethinking the cause of the new inequality Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Educational Policy Center.
Stasz, C., Eide, E.R. & Martorell, P. (2007). Post-secondary education in Qatar: Employer demand, student choice, and options for policy. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Education.
Stearns, E., Bottıa, M. C., Davalos, E., Mickelson, R. A., Moller, S., & Valentino, L. (2016). Demographic Characteristics of High School Math and Science Teachers and Girls’ Success in STEM. Social Problems, 63, 87-110. doi:10.1093/socpro/spv027.
Su, R., & Rounds, J. (2015). All STEM fields are not created equal: People and things interests explain gender disparities across STEM fields. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 189-189. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00189.
Tai, R. H., Liu, C.Q., Maltese, A.V., & Fan, X. (2006). Planning early for careers in science. Science, 312, 1143−1144.
Tavani, C. M., & Losh, S. C. (2003). Motivation, self-confidence, and expectations as predictors of the academic performances among our high school students. Child Study Journal, 33(3), 141-152.
Taylor, A., Jones, G., Broadwell, B., & Oppewal, T. (2008). Creativity, inquiry, or accountability? Scientists’ and teachers’ perceptions of science education. Science Education, 92(6), 1058–1075. doi:10.1002/sce.20272.
The Sutton Trust (2011). Improving the impact of teachers on pupil achievement in the UK – interim findings. Executive summary. The Sutton Trust-Education Endowment Foundation Teaching and Learning Toolkit. London: Education Endowment Foundation. Retrieved from:
Thompson, M. D. (2001). Informal student-faculty interaction: Its relationship to educational gains in science and mathematics among community college students. Community College Review, 29(1), 35-57.
Trautwein, U. (2007). The homework–achievement relation reconsidered: Differentiating homework time, homework frequency, and homework effort. Learning and Instruction, 17(3), 372-388. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2007.02.009.
Trautwein, U., & Köller, O. (2003). The relationship between homework and achievement—still much of a mystery. Educational Psychology Review, 15(2), 115-145. doi:10.1023/A:1023460414243.
Trautwein, U., Köller, O., Schmitz, B., & Baumert, J. (2002). Do homework assignments enhance achievement? A multilevel analysis in 7th-grade mathematics. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 27(1), 26−50. doi:10.1006/ceps.2001.1084.
Tyson, W., Lee, R., Borman, K. M., & Hanson, M. A. (2007). Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) pathways: High school science and math coursework and postsecondary degree attainment. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 12(3), 243−270. doi:10.1080/10824660701601266.
Wang, X. (2013). Why students choose STEM majors: Motivation, high school learning, and postsecondary context of support. American Educational Research Journal, 50(5), 1081-1121. doi:10.3102/0002831213488622.
Warton, P. M. (2001). The forgotten voices in homework: Views of students. Educational Psychologist, 36(3), 155−165. doi:10.1207/S15326985EP3603_2.
Watkins, J., & Mazur, E. (2013). Retaining students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Journal of College Science Teaching, 42(5), 36−41.
Weber, A. S. (2014b). Linking education to creating a knowledge society: Qatar’s investment in the education sector. In N. Baporikar (Ed.), Handbook of research on higher education in the MENA region: Policy and practice (pp. 52−73). Hershey, Pennsylvania: Business Science Reference, IGI Global. doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-7363-2.ch044.
Weber, A. S. (2014a). Education, development and sustainability in Qatar: A case study of economic and knowledge transformation in the Arabian Gulf. In A. W. Wiseman, N. H. Alromi, & S. Alshumrani (Eds.), Education for a knowledge society in Arabian Gulf countries (pp. 59–82). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Wiseman, A. W., Alromi, N. H. & Alshumrani, S. (2014). Education for a knowledge society in Arabian Gulf countries. London: Emerald Group Publishing.
Zimmerman, B. J., & Kitsantas, A. (2005). Homework practices and academic achievement: The mediating role of self-efficacy and perceived responsibility beliefs. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 30(4), 397-417. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2005.05.003.