A Study of Undergraduate Students’ Use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and the Factors Affecting their Use: A Developing Country Perspective
More details
Hide details
Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, Ma’an, JORDAN
Online publish date: 2018-02-07
Publish date: 2018-02-07
EURASIA J. Math., Sci Tech. Ed 2018;14(5):1731–1746
The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to examine the extent of undergraduate students’ use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for personal and educational purposes, and (2) to examine differences in their use based on their gender, academic year, major, ICT access, and perceived ICT competencies. A descriptive method was followed in which 252 participants completed a questionnaire. The participants were students from a university in Jordan. The results showed that almost all the students owned smartphones and majority of them owned laptop computers. They had easy access to common types of technologies such as computers and the internet. They had moderate competencies in the general use of these common technologies, and high competencies in using smartphones. They were users of common digital tools and applications for personal purposes. Their ownership, access, competencies with, and use of ICT for personal purposes did not result in extensive use of ICT for educational purposes. However, students’ use of ICT for informal learning had multifaceted relationships with their use of ICT for personal purposes, ICT access, and ICT perceived competencies. Students’ ICT use for informal purposes is also influenced by their gender. However, the students’ use ICT for formal learning was not directly influenced by their ICT access, ICT perceived competencies, gender, or major. But, students’ use ICT for formal learning was related to their use of ICT for personal purposes and for informal learning. Nowadays university students surrounded by technology, some common types of these technologies include smartphones, Social Networking Service (SNS), computers, and the internet. They know how to use these types of technologies. Students’ use of ICT in their learning is directly and indirectly influenced by several factors. University administrators and faculty members should take advantage of students’ use and experience of specific types of ICT such as smartphones and SNS in their personal and social life by formally integrating such ICT in students’ learning. However such integration needs careful planning in terms of considering the pedagogy related to technology integration and considering the factors that would influence students’ acceptance and use of such technologies.
1. Abel, J. R., & Deitz, R. (2011). Do colleges and universities increase their region’s human capital? Journal of Economic Geography, lbr020.
2. Abu-Alruz, J. (2014). Facebook Use in Education: experiences of university science education students in Jordan. E-Learning and Digital Media, 11(3), 291-299.
3. Alimat, H., & Altah, Z. (2014). The extent of the use of social interaction media on the Internet by Al-Bayt University students. Al - Manara Journal for Research and Studies, 20(1), 55-73 [Arabic].
4. Al-Shboul, M., Al-Saideh, M., & Al-Labadi, N. (2017). Learners’ perspectives of using ICT in higher education institutions in Jordan. Instructional Technology, 14(3), 27-86.
5. Alsoudi, A. M. A., & Adaieleh, A. A. (2005). University Students’ Use, Knowledge and Attitudes towards Computers and ICTs: Comparative Study between Two Jordanian Universities: A Sociological-Educational Approach.Dirasat: Human & Social Sciences, 32(2).
6. Aspin, D. N., Chapman, J. D., Hatton, M., & Sawano, Y. (Eds.). (2012). International handbook of lifelong learning (Vol. 6). Springer Science & Business Media.
7. Bass, J. M., & Thapa, D. (2014, January). Multi-casting in mountainous regions of developing countries: Analysis through ICT, institutions, and capabilities perspectives. In System Sciences (HICSS), 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on (pp. 3327-3336). IEEE.
8. Bingimlas, K. A. (2009). Barriers to the successful integration of ICT in teaching and learning environments: A review of the literature. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 5(3), 235-245.
9. Bsharah, M., Gasaymeh, A. M., & Abdelrahman, M. B. (2014). The Relationship between the Use of Social Networking Sites (SNS) and Perceived Level of Social Intelligence among Jordanian University Students: The Case of Facebook. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 6(3), 1.
10. Dabbagh, N., & Kitsantas, A. (2012). Personal Learning Environments, social media, and self-regulated learning: A natural formula for connecting formal and informal learning. The Internet and higher education, 15(1), 3-8.
11. Dahlstrom, E., Walker, J. D., & Dziuban, C. (2012). ECAR study of undergraduate students and information technology. 2012.
12. Davis, F. (1986). A technology acceptance model for empirically testing new end-user information systems: theory and results (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation). MIT Sloan School of Management, Cambridge, MA.
13. Dutta, S., & Mia, I. (2010). The global information technology report 2009–2010. In World Economic Forum and INSEAD, SRO-Kundig Geneva, Switzerland.
14. Echenique, E. E. G., Molías, L. M., & Bullen, M. (2015). Students in higher education: Social and academic uses of digital technology. RUSC. Universities and Knowledge Society Journal, 12(1), 25-37.
15. Ertmer, P. A., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. (2013). Removing obstacles to the pedagogical changes required by Jonassen’s vision of authentic technology-enabled learning. Computers & Education, 64, 175-182.
16. Gasaymeh, A., (2017). First year students’ acceptance of the formal integration of smartphones into their learning: a study using an extended TAM which includes social influences and perceived enjoyment. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 14(7).
17. Gosper, M., McKenzie, J., Pizzica, J., Malfroy, J., & Ashford-Rowe, K. (2014). Student use of technologies for learning–what has changed since 2010? In Proceedings of ASCILITE 2014 - Annual Conference of the Australian Society for Computers in Tertiary Education (pp. 290-301). Dunedin, New Zealand: ASCILITE.
18. Graf, S. (2009, September). Advanced adaptivity in learning management systems by considering learning styles. In Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Joint Conference on Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology-Volume 03 (pp. 235-238). IEEE Computer Society.
19. Howland, J. L., Jonassen, D. H., & Marra, R. M. (2012). Meaningful learning with technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
20. Kennedy, G. E., Judd, T. S., Churchward, A., Gray, K., & Krause, K. L. (2008). First year students’ experiences with technology: Are they really digital natives? Australasian journal of educational technology, 24(1).
21. Khan, M., Hossain, S., Hasan, M., & Clement, C. K. (2012). Barriers to the introduction of ICT into education in developing countries: The example of Bangladesh. Online Submission, 5(2), 61-80.
22. Lai, K. W., & Hong, K. S. (2015). Technology use and learning characteristics of students in higher education: Do generational differences exist? British Journal of Educational Technology, 46(4), 725-738.
23. Laurillard, D. (2013). Rethinking university teaching: A conversational framework for the effective use of learning technologies. London: Routledge.
24. Margaryan, A., Littlejohn, A., & Vojt, G. (2011). Are digital natives a myth or reality? University students’ use of digital technologies. Computers & Education, 56(2), 429-440.
25. Orange. (2017). Orange offers and services. Retrieved from
26. Pelgrum, W. J. (2001). Obstacles to the integration of ICT in education: results from a worldwide educational assessment. Computers & education, 37(2), 163-178.
27. Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusions of Innovations (Fifth Ed.). New York: Free Press.
28. Scornavacca, E., Huff, S., & Marshall, S. (2009). Mobile phones in the classroom: if you can’t beat them, join them. Communications of the ACM, 52(4), 142-146.
29. Selwyn, N. (2008). An investigation of differences in undergraduates’ academic use of the internet. Active Learning in Higher Education, 9(1), 11-22.
30. Sife, A., Lwoga, E., & Sanga, C. (2007). New technologies for teaching and learning: Challenges for higher learning institutions in developing countries. International journal of education and development using ICT, 3(2).
31. Smith, A. (2012). 17% of cell phone owners do most of their online browsing on their phone, rather than a computer or other device. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from
32. Smith, S. D., Caruso, J. B., & Kim, J. (2010). The ECAR study of undergraduate students and information technology, 2010. Colorado: Educause.
33. Ssekakubo, G., Suleman, H., & Marsden, G. (2011, October). Issues of adoption: have e-learning management systems fulfilled their potential in developing countries? In Proceedings of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologists Conference on Knowledge, Innovation and Leadership in a Diverse, Multidisciplinary Environment (pp. 231-238). ACM.
34. Umniah. (2017). Prepaid Plans. Retrieved from
35. Valentín, A., Mateos, P. M., GonzáLez-Tablas, M. M., PéRez, L., LóPez, E., & García, I. (2013). Motivation and learning strategies in the use of ICTs among university students. Computers & Education, 61, 52-58.
36. Valk, J. H., Rashid, A. T., & Elder, L. (2010). Using mobile phones to improve educational outcomes: An analysis of evidence from Asia. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 11(1), 117-140.
37. Venkatesh, V., Croteau, A. M., & Rabah, J. (2014, January). Perceptions of effectiveness of instructional uses of technology in higher education in an era of Web 2.0. In System Sciences (HICSS), 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on (pp. 110-119). IEEE.
38. Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B., & Davis, F. D. (2003). User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view. Management Information System (MIS) quarterly, 27, 425-478.
39. Wang, Q. (2008). A generic model for guiding the integration of ICT into teaching and learning. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 45(4), 411-419.
40. Yu, F., & Conway, A. R. (2012). Mobile/smartphone use in higher education. In Proceedings of the 2012 Southwest Decision Sciences Institute (pp. 831-839).
41. Zain. (2017). Prepaid Plans. Retrieved from