RESEARCH PAPER
Effects of Changed School Entry Rules: Age Effects within Third Grade Students
Özgür Öner 1
,  
Öykü Çalışır 2, 3, 4
,  
Nazife Ayyıldız 2, 4, 5
,  
Pınar Uran 6
,  
Sinan Olkun 7  
,  
Metehan Çiçek 2, 4, 8
 
 
More details
Hide details
1
Bahçeşehir University, School of Medicine, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Istanbul, TURKEY
2
Ankara University Brain Research Center, Ankara, TURKEY
3
Ankara University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Psychological Counseling and Guidance Unit, Ankara, TURKEY
4
Ankara University Institute of Health Sciences, Department of Interdisciplinary Neuroscience, Ankara, TURKEY
5
Department of Mathematics Education, Institute of Educational Sciences, Ankara University, Ankara, TURKEY
6
Ankara University School of Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department, Ankara, TURKEY
7
TED University Department of Mathematics and Science Education, Ankara, TURKEY
8
Ankara University School of Medicine, Department of Physiology, Ankara, TURKEY
Online publish date: 2018-04-18
Publish date: 2018-04-18
 
EURASIA J. Math., Sci Tech. Ed 2018;14(6):2555–2562
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
It has been reported that young age of school onset has important effects on academic and behavioral outcomes. Although there are studies using multinational data, data from low and middle income countries are few. As part of a larger study about mathematics learning difficulties, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the age of school entry on mathematics ability and general ability in standard tests and emotional and behavioral problems reported by their teachers among 2058 third grade students in Ankara, second biggest and capital city of Turkey. Results indicated lower mathematics and general abilities and higher hyperactivity/impulsivity, inattention and emotional problems scores as well as less prosocial behavior in the youngest group of children. Effect sizes were largest for general ability and mathematics ability. Our data were largely consistent with previous studies from other countries, and extended the literature by providing data from a middle income country.
 
REFERENCES (29)
1.
Bedard, K., & Dhuey, E. (2006). The persistence of early childhood maturity: international evidence of long-run age effects. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 121, 1437–1472. https://doi.org/10.1093/qje/12....
 
2.
Black, S. E., Devereux, P. J., & Salvanes, K. G. (2011). Too young to leave the nest? The effects of school starting age. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 93, 455-467. https://doi.org/10.1162/REST_a....
 
3.
Buntaine, R. L., & Costenbader, V. K. (1997). The effectiveness of a transitional prekindergarten program on later academic achievement. Psychology in the Schools, 34(1), 41-50. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)...<41::AID-PITS5>3.0.CO;2-Y.
 
4.
Bussing, R., Fernandez, M., Harwood, M., Wei, H., Garvan, C. W., Eyberg, S. M., & Swanson, J. M. (2008). Parent and teacher SNAP-IV ratings of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: psychometric properties and normative ratings from a school district sample. Assessment, 15, 317-328. https://doi.org/10.1177/107319....
 
5.
De Meis, J. L., & Stearns, E. S. (1992). Relationship of school entrance age to academic and social performance. The Journal of Educational Research, 86(1), 20-27. https://doi.org/10.1080/002206....
 
6.
De Vos, T. (1992). Tempo-test rekenen (Number fact retrieval test). Nijmegen: Berkhout.
 
7.
Dhuey, E., & Lipscomb, S. (2008). What makes a leader? Relative age and high school leadership. Economics of Education Review, 27, 173–183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econ....
 
8.
Dobkin, C., & Ferreira, F. (2010). Do school entry laws affect educational attainment and labor market outcomes? Economics of Education Review, 29, 40–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econ....
 
9.
Elder, T. E. (2010). The Importance of Relative Standards in ADHD Diagnoses: Evidence Based on Exact Birth Dates. Journal of Health Economics, 29, 641–656. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhea....
 
10.
Elder, T. E., & Lubotsky, D. H. (2009). Kindergarten Entrance Age and Children’s Achievement: Impacts of State Policies, Family Background, and Peers. Journal of Human Resources, 44, 641–683. https://doi.org/10.1353/jhr.20....
 
11.
Evans, W. M., Morrill, M. S., & Parente, S. T. (2010). Measuring inappropriate medical diagnosis and treatment in survey data:The case of ADHD among school-age children. Journal of Health Economics, 29, 657–673. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhea....
 
12.
Fidan, E. (2013). İlkokul Öğrencileri İçin Matematik Dersi Sayılar Öğrenme Alanında Başarı Testi Geliştirilmesi [Mathematics Achievement Test for Primary School Students] (Unpublished masters’ thesis), Ankara Üniversitesi, Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü.
 
13.
Gledhill, J., Ford, T., & Goodman, R. (2002). Does season of birth matter? The relationship between age within the school year (season of birth) and educational difficulties amongst a representative general population sample of children and adolescents (aged 5-15) in Great Britain. Research in Education 68, 41-47. https://doi.org/10.7227/RIE.68....
 
14.
Goodman, R. (2001). Psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1337-1345. https://doi.org/10.1097/000045....
 
15.
Goodman, R., Gledhill, J., & Ford, T. (2003). Child psychiatric disorder and relative age within school year: cross sectional survey of large population sample. British Medical Journal, 327, 472-475. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.32....
 
16.
Güvenir, T., Özbek, A., Baykara, B., Arkar, H., Şentürk, B., & İncekaş, S. (2008). Psychometric Properties of The Turkish Version of The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Turkish Journal of Child Adolescent Mental Health, 15, 65-74. Retrieved from http://toad.edam.com.tr/sites/....
 
17.
Jones, M. M., & Mandeville, G. K. (1990). The effect of age at school entry on reading achievement scores among South Carolina students. Remedial and Special Education, 11(2), 56-62. https://doi.org/10.1177/074193....
 
18.
Lien, L., Tambs, K., Oppedal, B., Heyerdahl, S., & Bjertness, E. (2005). Is relatively young age within a school year a risk factor for mental health problems and poor school performance? A population-based cross-sectional study of adolescents in Oslo, Norway. BMC Public Health 5, 102. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2....
 
19.
Martin, A. J. (2009). Age appropriateness and motivation, engagement, and performance in high school: Effects of age within cohort, grade retention, and delayed school entry. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(1), 101-114. https://doi.org/10.1037/a00131....
 
20.
Martin, R. P., Foels, P., Clanton, G., & Moon, K. (2004). Season of birth is related to child retention rates, achievement, and rate of diagnosis of specific ld. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 37, 309–317. https://doi.org/10.1177/002221....
 
21.
McNamara, J., Scissons, M., & Simonot, S. (2004). Should We "Redshirt" in Kindergarten? A Study of the Effect of Age on Kindergarteners' Reading Readiness. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 50(2). Retrieved from http://ajer.journalhosting.uca....
 
22.
Morrison, F. J., Alberts, D. M., & Griffith, E. M. (1997). Nature -nurture in the classroom: Entrance age, school readiness, and learning in children. Developmental Psychology, 33(2), 254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012....
 
23.
Mühlenweg, A. M. (2010). Young and innocent: International evidence on age effects within grades on victimization in elementary school. Economics Letters, 109, 157–160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econ....
 
24.
Mühlenweg, A., Blomeyer, D., Stichnoth, H., & Laucht, M. (2012). Effects of age at school entry (ASE) on the development of non-cognitive skills: Evidence from psychometric data. Economics of Education Review, 31, 68–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econ....
 
25.
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. (2008). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: diagnosis and management of ADHD in children, young people and adults. (Clinical guideline 72). Retrieved from http://www.nice.org.uk/CG72.
 
26.
Olkun, S., Can, D., & Yeşilpınar, M. (2013). Hesaplama Performansı Testi: Geçerlilik ve Güvenilirlik Çalışması. XII. Ulusal Sınıf Öğretmenliği Sempozyumu Bildiriler Kitabı. Aydın: Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi, 89-92. [Reliability and Validity Study of the Computational Performance Test]. In Procedings of the XII. National Classroom Teacher Education Symposium held in Aydın University: Aydın.
 
27.
Raven, J. (2000). The Raven’s progressive matrices: change and stability over culture and time. Cognitive Psychology, 41, 1-48. https://doi.org/10.1006/cogp.1....
 
28.
Thompson, A. H., Barnsley, R. H., & Battle, J. (2004). The relative age effect and the development of self-esteem. Educational Research, 46(3), 313-320. https://doi.org/10.1080/001318....
 
29.
Wolraich, M., Lambert, E., Baumgaertel, A., Garcia-Tornel, S., Feurer, I. D., Bickman, L., & Doffing, M. A. (2003). Teachers’ screening for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: comparing multinational samples on teacher ratings of ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 445–455. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023....
 
eISSN:1305-8223
ISSN:1305-8215