Effects of the Visual/Verbal Learning Style on Concentration and Achievement in Mobile Learning
Ting Lu 1,  
Xianmin Yang 1  
More details
Hide details
Research Center of Smart Education, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou, CHINA
Online publish date: 2018-02-07
Publish date: 2018-02-07
EURASIA J. Math., Sci Tech. Ed 2018;14(5):1719–1729
This study investigated the relationship between the style, concentration, and achievement of students in terms of visual/verbal learning when learning conceptual knowledge with the use of mobile phones in the classroom. A total of 93 Chinese college students who majored in education participated in this study. Two major results were identified by combining the methods of correlation analysis and ANOVA (one-way, two-way): A significant correlation was found to exist between concentration and the delayed post-test. Moreover, a significant interaction effects on learning achievement was found in visual/verbal learning style and concentration. The implications, limitations, and future research plans were presented.
1. Akkoyunlu, B. (1995). Bilgi Teknolojilerinin Okullarda Kullanımı ve Öğretmenlerin Rolü (in Turkish). Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 11(11), 105-109.
2. Arikpo, O. U., & Domike, G. (2015). Pupils learning preferences and interest development in learning. Journal of Education & Practice, 6(21), 31–38.
3. Attewell, J. (2005). Mobile technologies and learning. London: Learning and Skills Development Agency, 2(4).
4. Babadoğan, C. (2000). Öğretim Stili Odakı Ders Tasarımı Geliştirme (in Turkish). Milli Eğitim Dergisi, 147, 61-63.
5. Biçer, D. (2014). The effect of students’ and instructors’ learning styles on achievement of foreign language preparatory school students. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 141, 382-386.
6. Borich, G. D. (1988). Effective teaching methods. India: Pearson Education India.
7. Briggs, K. C. (1976). Myers-Briggs type indicator. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
8. Chen, C. M., & Sun, Y. C. (2012). Assessing the effects of different multimedia materials on emotions and learning performance for visual and verbal style learners. Computers & Education, 59(4), 1273-1285.
9. Chen, I. H., Yang, Y. T. C., & Hsu, S. W. (2013, March). Development and evaluation of a concentration questionnaire for students in classroom. In Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference, No. 1, pp. 4226-4230.
10. Chen, Y. S., Kao, T. C., & Sheu, J. P. (2003). A mobile learning system for scaffolding bird watching learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 19(3), 347-359.
11. Cruz, Y. (2013, July). Examining the effect of learning styles on mobile learning adoption. In Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), 13th International Conference on (pp. 510-511). IEEE.
12. Dağ, F., & Geçer, A. 2009). Relations between online learning and learning styles. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1, 862–871.
13. Delgado, M. R., Phelps, E. A., & Robbins, T. W. (Eds.). (2011). Decision making, affect, and learning: Attention and performance XXIII (Vol. 23). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
14. Denk, M., Weber, M., & Belfin, R. (2007). Mobile learning–challenges and potentials. International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation, 1(2), 122-139.
15. Dunn, R. S., & Dunn, K. J. (1978). Teaching students through their individual learning styles: A practical approach. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
16. Dunn, R., & Dunn, K. (1978). Teaching students through their individual learning styles: a practical approach. International Journal of Science Education - INT J SCI EDUC.
17. Felder, R. M. (1993). Reaching the second tire - learning styles and teaching styles in college science education. Journal of College Science Teaching, 23(5), 286- 290.
18. Felder, R. M., & Brent, R. (2005). Understanding student differences. Journal of Engineering Education, 94(1), 57-72.
19. Felder, R. M., & Silverman, L. K. (1988). Learning and teaching styles in engineering education. Engineering education, 78(7), 674-681.
20. Felder, R. M., & Soloman, B. A. (1997). Index of learning styles. Raleigh.
21. Gappi, L. L. (2013). Relationships between learning style preferences and academic performance of students. International Journal of Educational Research and Technology, 4(2), 7.
22. Ge, X. S. (2006). The top ten factors of influencing learning attention. Instructional Research, 6, 555-557.
23. Gomes, A., Santos, Á., Carmo, L., & Mendes, A. J. (2007, September). Learning styles in an e-learning tool. Paper presented at the meeting of ICEE, Coimbra, Portugal.
24. Hockly, N. (2013). Technology for the language teacher: Mobile learning. Elt Journal, 67(1), 80-84.
25. Hwang, G. J., & Wu, P. H. (2014). Applications, impacts and trends of mobile technology–enhanced learning: a review of 2008–2012 publications in selected SSCI journals. International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation, 8(2), 83-95.
26. Hwang, G.-J., & Tsai, C.-C. (2011). Research trends in mobile and ubiquitous learning: A review of publications in selected journals from 2001 to 2010. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(4), E65-E70.
27. Jamet, E., Gavota, M., & Quaireau, C. (2008). Attention guiding in multimedia learning. Learning and instruction, 18(2), 135-145.
28. Kalpana, E., Anand, K. N., Nalini, K., Sujith, C. J., Alice, K., & Molly, T. (1998). Patient oriented problem solving (POPS) approach and audiovisual aided (AVA) lectures in teaching pharmacology-A comparative study. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 30(2), 97.
29. Kang, C., & Zhou, A. B. (2009). The effect of representational mode of information and personality traits of learners on the learning in multimedia environment. Psychological Development and Education, 25(1), 81-90.
30. Kirby, J. R., Moore, P. J., & Schofield, N. J. (1988). Verbal and visual learning styles. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 13(2), 169-184.
31. Kissinger, J. S. (2011). A collective case study of mobile e-book learning experiences (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. AAT 3458925).
32. Kolb, A., & Kolb, D. A. (2012). Kolb’s learning styles. In Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning (pp. 1698-1703). NY, US: Springer.
33. Kutluk, F. A., & Gülmez, M. (2014). A research about mobile learning perspectives of university students who have accounting lessons. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116(2014), 291-297.
34. Kydd, C. T., & Ferry, D. L. (1994). Managerial use of video conferencing. Information & Management, 27(6), 369-375.
35. Li, X., & Yang, X. (2016). Effects of learning styles and interest on concentration and achievement of students in mobile learning. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 54(7), 922-945.
36. Li, X., Zhao, Q., Liu, L., Peng, H., Qi, Y., Mao, C., ... Hu, B. (2010). Improve affective learning with EEG approach. Computing & Informatics, 29(4), 557-570.
37. Lin, M. F., Fulford, C. P., Ho, C. P., Iyoda, R., & Ackerman, L. K. (2012, March). Possibilities and challenges in mobile learning for K-12 teachers: a pilot retrospective survey study. In 2012 IEEE Seventh International Conference on Wireless, Mobile and Ubiquitous Technology in Education (pp. 132–136).
38. Lin, Y. T., Huang, Y. M., & Cheng, S. C. (2010). An automatic group composition system for composing collaborative learning groups using enhanced particle swarm optimization. Computers & Education, 55(4), 1483-1493.
39. Lin, Y. W., Huang, T. C., & Liu, C. J. (2010). The development and application of the concentration questionnaire in science classroom. Chinese Journal of Science Education, 18(2), 107-129.
40. Liu, P. L. (2014). Using eye tracking to understand the responses of learners to vocabulary learning strategy instruction and use. Computer Assisted Language Learning, (ahead-of-print), 1-14.
41. Liu, S. H., Liao, H. L., & Peng, C. J. (2005). Applying the technology acceptance model and flow theory to online e-learning users’ acceptance behavior. E-learning, 6(2), 4-8.
42. Marković, S., & Jovanović, N. (2012). Learning style as a factor which affects the quality of e-learning. Artificial Intelligence Review, 38(4), 303-312.
43. Mason, L., Pluchino, P., Tornatora, M. C., & Ariasi, N. (2013). An eye-tracking study of learning from science text with concrete and abstract illustrations. The Journal of Experimental Education, 81(3), 356-384.
44. Mayer, R. E., & Moreno, R. (1998). A split-attention effect in multimedia learning: Evidence for dual processing systems in working memory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(2), 312.
45. Murre, J. M. J., & Joeri, D. (2015). Replication and analysis of Ebbinghaus’ forgetting curve. Plos One, 10(7), e0120644.
46. Norazah, M. N., Ridzwan, C. R., & Arif, A. A. (2013). Relationship between the acceptance of mobile learning for AutoCAD course and learning style in polytechnic. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 102, 177-187.
47. Oz, H. (2014). Prospective English teachers’ ownership and usage of mobile devices as m-learning tools. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 141, 1031-1041.
48. Paget, R. (2010). A Guide to Study and Revision.
49. Rogers, Y., & Price, S. (2008). The role of mobile devices in facilitating collaborative inquiry in situ. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 3(03), 209-229.
50. Schmidt-Weigand, F., Kohnert, A., & Glowalla, U. (2010). A closer look at split visual attention in system-and self-paced instruction in multimedia learning. Learning and Instruction, 20(2), 100-110.
51. Sharples, M. (2000). The design of personal mobile technologies for lifelong learning. Computers & Education, 34(3-4), 177-193.
52. Sharples, M. (2006). Big issues in mobile learning. Nottingham: University of Nottingham.
53. Sharples, M., Arnedillo-Sánchez, I., Milrad, M., & Vavoula, G. (2009). Mobile learning (pp. 233-249). The Netherlands: Springer.
54. Sharples, M., Taylor, J., & Vavoula, G. (2006). A theory of learning for the mobile age. 87-99.
55. Sharples, M., Taylor, J., & Vavoula, G. (2010). A theory of learning for the mobile age. Medienbildung in Neuen Kulturräumen, 87-99.
56. Shuib, L., Shamshirband, S., & Ismail, M. H. (2015). A review of mobile pervasive learning: Applications and issues. Computers in Human Behavior, 46, 239-244.
57. Stipek, D., & Valentino, R. A. (2014). Early childhood memory and attention as predictors of academic growth trajectories. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107(3), 771–788.
58. Ting, Y. L. (2013). Using mobile technologies to create interwoven learning interactions: An intuitive design and its evaluation. Computers & Education, 60(1), 1-13.
59. van Gog, T., & Scheiter, K. (2010). Eye tracking as a tool to study and enhance multimedia learning. Learning and Instruction, 20(2), 95-99.
60. Wine, J. (1971). Test anxiety and direction of attention. Psychological bulletin, 76(2), 92.
61. Wyatt, T. H., Krauskopf, P. B., Gaylord, N. M., Ward, A., Huffstutler-Hawkins, S., & Goodwin, L. (2010). Cooperative m-learning with nurse practitioner students. Nursing Education Perspectives, 31(2), 109-113.
62. Yau, J. Y.-K., & Joy, M. (2006). Application of learning styles for effective mobile learning. In Mobile Learning. Dublin, Eire, 16-21.
63. Yilmazsoylu, M., & Akkoyunlu, B. (2009). The effect of learning styles on achievement in different learning environments. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 8(4), 43-50.