Evaluating Gamer’s Cognition and Involvement on the Effectiveness of Gamifying Learning
Chia-Wen Lee 1,  
Cheng-Fu Yang 2,  
Genmiao Ma 3,  
More details
Hide details
School of Humanities, Jinan University, CHINA
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, TAIWAN
School of Art and Communication, Beijing Normal University, Zhuhai, CHINA
Online publish date: 2017-10-30
Publish date: 2017-10-30
EURASIA J. Math., Sci Tech. Ed 2018;14(1):109–115
Video Game-based learning has been an important way for practitioners to gear up for success. Advergames provide an exclusively learning environment in which video gamers pay full attention and thoroughly absorb information without interruption. But still very few studies have been devoted to understanding how individual’s self-construal and for cognitive product involvement with advergame format influences the evolution of players perception of brand personality. This study was consisted of an experimental study in which a series of advergames was created and two distinct brands: a high and a low cognitively involving products were included as the stimulus. The study identified key measures of effectiveness in the context of 195 American and Chinese participants as subjects were randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions. This study used 2 X 2 factorial between-subjects design. The two factors were individual’s self-construal (interdepend and independent) and cognitive product involvement (high and low). The results revealed that the players with interdependent self-construal reported a greater influence on perception of brand personality than the players with independent self-construal. The results further verified an influence of self-construal on perception of brand personality in the different product involvement.
1. Aaker, D. A. (1996). Measuring brand equity across products and markets. California Management Review, 38, 102–120.
2. Aaker, J. L. (1997). Dimensions of brand personality. Journal of Marketing Research, 34, 347–356.
3. Agrawal, N., & Maheswaran, D. (2005). The effects of self-construal and commitment on persuasion. Journal of Consumer Research, 31, 841–849.
4. Ahluwalia, R. (2008). How far can a brand stretch? Understanding the role of self-construal. Journal of Marketing Research, 45(3), 337-350.
5. Cauberghe, V., & Pelsmacker, P. D. (2010). Advergames: The impact of brand prominence and game repetition on brand responses. Journal of Advertising, 39(1), 5–18. Cours, D., Walker, K., & Kiesler, T. (2008). Self-construal, reference groups, and brand purchase behavior. Advances in Consumer Research, 8, 469–474.
6. Han, S. P., & Shavitt, S. (1994). Persuasion and culture: Advertising appeals in individualistic and collectivistic societies. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 30(4), 236-350.
7. Hernandez, M. D., & Chapa, S. (2010). Adolescents, advergames and snack foods: Effects of positive affect and experience on memory and choice. Journal of Marketing Communications, 16, 59–68.
8. Ji, L. J., Zhang, Z., & Nisbett, R. E. (2004). It is culture, or is it language? Examination of language effects in cross-cultural research on categorization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87(1), 57-65.
9. Keng, C., Chang, W., Chen, C., & Chang, Y. (2016). Mere virtual presence with product experience affects brand attitude and purchase intention. Social Behavior and Personality, 44(3), 431-444.
10. Lee, A. Y., Aaker, J. L., & Gardner, W. L. (2000). The pleasures and pains of distinct self-construals; The role of interdependence in regulatory focus. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(6), 1122-1134.
11. Lee, C. W., & Aiken, D. K. (2010). Changing brand associations in Taiwan: Nike’s sponsorship of high school basketball. Journal of Sponsorship, 3(3), 249–259.
12. Lee, C., Yang, C., & Hung, H. (2017). Evaluating Game-Brand Congruity and Flow on Brand Personality by Using Gamifying Learning. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 13(7), 3083-3097.
13. Lee, M., & Faber, R. J. (2007). Effects of product placement in on-line games on brand memory: A perspective of the limited-capacity model of attention. Journal of Advertising, 36, 75–90.
14. Lin, L. Y. (2010). A study on the relationship of consumer personality trait brand personality and brand loyalty: An example of toys and video games buyers. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 19, 4–17.
15. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98(2), 224-253.
16. Markus, H., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224–253.
17. Monga, A. B., & Lau-Gesk, L. (2007). Blending cobrand personalities: An examination of the complex self. Journal of Marketing Research, 44, 389–400.
18. Ng, S., & Houston, M. J. (2006). Exemplars or beliefs? The impact of self-view on the nature and relative influence of brand association. Journal of Consumer Research, 32(4), 519-529.
19. Questor, P. G. (1997). Awareness as a measure of sponsorship effectiveness: The Adelaide formula one grand prix and evidence of incidental ambush effects. Journal of Marketing Communication, 3, 1–20.
20. Shah, J., Higgins, T. E., & Friedman, R. S. (1998). Performance incentives and means: How regulatory focus influence goal attainment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 285–293.
21. Su, C. H & Hsaio, K. C. (2015). Developing and Evaluating Gamifying Learning System by Using Flow-Based Model. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 11(6), 1283-1306.
22. Sung, Y., & Choi, S. M. (2011). Increasing power and preventing pain: The moderating role of self-construal in advertising message framing. Journal of Advertising, 40(1), 71–85.
23. Terlutter, R., & Capella, M. L. (2013). The gamification of advertising: Analysis and research directions of in-gaming advertising, advergames, and advertising in social network games. Journal of Advertising, 42, 95–112.
24. Triandis, H. C. (1989). The self and social behavior in differing cultural contexts. Psychological Review, 96, 506–520.
25. van Baaren, R. B., & Ruivenkamp, M. (2007). Self-construal and values express in advertising. Social Influence, 2, 136–144.
26. Wang, L., Lee, C. W., Mantz, T. K., & Hung, H. C. (2015). Effects of Flow and Self-Construal on Brand Personality in Racing Advergame. Social Behavior and Personality, 43 (4), 1181-1192.
27. Zaichkowsky, J. L. (1994). The personal involvement inventory: Reduction, revision and application to advertising. Journal of Advertising, 23(4), 59–70.
28. Zhang, L. (2009). The effect of advertising appeals in activating self-construals: A case of bicultural Chines Generation X consumers. Journal of Advertising, 38(1), 63-82.
29. Zhang, L., Moore, M., & Moore, R. (2011). The effect of self-construals on the effectiveness of comparative advertising. Marketing Management Journal, 21(1), 195–206.
30. Zigmond, D., & Stipp, H. (2010). Assessing a new advertising effect measurement of the impact of television commercials on Internet search queries. Journal of Advertising Research, 50(2), 162–168.