RESEARCH PAPER
Integrating ARCS Model of Motivation and PBL in Flipped Classroom: a Case Study on a Programming Language
 
More details
Hide details
1
Department of information management, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan City, TAIWAN
Publish date: 2018-09-28
 
EURASIA J. Math., Sci Tech. Ed 2018;14(12):em1631
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
This study proposed a teaching model that integrates attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction (ARCS) model and problem-based learning (PBL) and applied the proposed model to a flipped classroom to improve learners’ learning motivation and effectiveness. Proficiency in the C# program language was the learning objective in this study. For the experiment, students were assigned either to the control group that used the conventional teaching method or to the experimental group that used this study’s flipped classroom method. The learning outcome levels of the two groups were assessed based on their pretest and posttest data. In addition, the students’ learning motivation was discussed in terms of the four dimensions of ARCS. The results showed that regarding learning outcomes, the experimental group had a more significant improvement in their learning results than the control group did; the experimental group achieved significant results for every dimension in the questionnaire. Therefore, the learners gave a positive review of the flipped classroom model designed in this study.
 
REFERENCES (47)
1.
Acedo, M. (2013). 10 Pros and cons of a flipped classroom. Retrieved from https://www.teachthought.com/l....
 
2.
Albanese, M. A., & Mitchell, S. (1993). Problem-based learning: a review of literature on its outcomes and implementation issues. Acad Med., 68(1), 52-81. https://doi.org/10.1097/000018....
 
3.
Alhazbi, S. (2015). ARCS-based tactics to improve students’ motivation in computer programming course. In Computer Science & Education (ICCSE), 10th International Conference on IEEE, 317-321.
 
4.
Alhazbi, S. (2016). Using flipped classroom approach to teach computer programming. In 2016 IEEE International Conference on Teaching, Assessment and Learning for Engineering (TALE), 441-444, February 10. https://doi.org/10.1109/TALE.2....
 
5.
Antti, K., Antti, H., Erno, V., & Jouni, I. (2016). The flipped classroom method: Lessons learned from flipping two programming courses. In The 17th International Conference on Computer Systems and Technologies, 1164, 423-430, June 23.
 
6.
Aşıksoy, G., & Özdamlı, F. (2016). Flipped classroom adapted to the ARCS model of motivation and applied to a physics course. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 12(6), 1589-1603. https://doi.org/10.12973/euras....
 
7.
Baker, J. (2000). The “Classroom Flip”: Using web course management tools to become the guide on the side. In 11th International Conference on College Teaching and Learning, 9-17.
 
8.
Barrows, H. S., & Tamblyn, R. M. (1980). Problem-based learning: An approach to medical education. Springer Series on medical education, 1.
 
9.
Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2012). Flip your classroom: Reach every student in every class every day. International Society for Technology in Education.
 
10.
Chang, N. C., & Chen, H. H. (2015). A motivational analysis of the ARCS model for information literacy courses in a blended learning environment. International Journal of Libraries and Information Studies, 65(2), 129-142.
 
11.
Chu, H. C., Hwang, G. J., Tsai, C. C., & Tseng, J. C. (2010). A two-tier test approach to developing location-aware mobile learning systems for natural science courses. Computers & Education, 55(4), 1618-1627. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comp....
 
12.
Costelloe, E. (2004). Teaching Programming the state of the Art. CRITE Technical Report.
 
13.
Delaney, Y., Pattinson, B., McCarthy, J., & Beecham, S. (2015). Transitioning from traditional to problem-based learning in management education: the case of a frontline manager skills development programme. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 54(3), 214-222. https://doi.org/10.1080/147032....
 
14.
Duke, R., Salzman, E., Burmeister, J., Poon, J., & Murray, L. (2000). Teaching programming to beginners–choosing the language is just the first step. Proceedings of the Australasian Conference on Computing Education, 1, 79-86, Melbourne, Australia.
 
15.
EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. (2012). 7 Things you should know about flipped classrooms. EDUCAUSE Creative Commons, (7).
 
16.
Elmaleh, J., & Shankararaman, V. (2017). Improving student learning in an introductory programming course using flipped classroom and competency framework. Proceedings of 2017 IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference, 49-55, June 7. https://doi.org/10.1109/EDUCON....
 
17.
Enarson, C. (2001). Cariaga-LoL: Influence of curriculum type on student performance in the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 and Step 2 exams: problem-based learning vs. lecture-based curriculum. Med Educ., 35, 1050–1055. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365....
 
18.
Fogarty, R. (1997). Problem-based learning and other curriculum models for the multiple intelligences classroom. IRI/Skylight Training and Publishing, Inc., 2626 South Clearbrook Drive, Arlington Heights, IL 60005.
 
19.
Horton, D., & Craig, M. (2015). Drop, Fail, Pass, Continue: Persistence in CS1 and Beyond in Traditional and Inverted Delivery. Proceedings of the 46th ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, 235–240, New York.
 
20.
Keller, J. M. (1984). The use of the ARCS model of motivation in teacher training. Aspects of educational technology, 17, 140-145.
 
21.
Keller, J. M. (2009). Motivational design for learning and performance: The ARCS model approach. Springer Science & Business Media.
 
22.
King, A. (1993). From sage on the stage to guide on the side. College teaching, 41(1), 30-35. https://doi.org/10.1080/875675....
 
23.
Latulipe, C., Long, N. B., & Seminario, C. E. (2015). Structuring Flipped Classes with Lightweight Teams and Gamification. Proceedings of the 46th ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, 392–397, New York.
 
24.
Lee, L. C., & Hao, K. C. (2015). Designing and evaluating digital game-based learning with the arcs motivation model, humor, and animation. International Journal of Technology and Human Interaction, 11(2), 80-95. https://doi.org/10.4018/ijthi.....
 
25.
Linn, M. C., & Clancy, M. J. (1992). The case for case studies of programming problems. Communications of the ACM, 35(3), 121-132. https://doi.org/10.1145/131295....
 
26.
Linn, M. C., & Dalbey, J. (1985). Cognitive consequences of programming instruction: Instruction, access, and ability. Educational Psychologist, 20(4), 191-206. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326....
 
27.
Lowman, J. (1990). Promoting motivation and learning. College Teaching, 38(4), 136-139.
 
28.
Mahdizadeh, M., Kermanian, F., Iravani, S., Markazi Moghaddam, N., & Shayan,S. (2008). Comparing lecture and problem-based learning methods in teaching limb anatomy to first year medical students. Iran J Med Educ, 2, 379–388.
 
29.
Maher, M. L., Latulipe, C., Lipford, H., & Rorrer, A. (2015). Flipped classroom strategies for CS education. Proceedings of the 46th ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, 218-223, New York, USA.
 
30.
Mannila, L., Peltomaki, M., & Salakoski, T. (2006). What about a simple language? Analyzing the difficulties in learning to program. Computer Science Education, 16(3), 211-227. https://doi.org/10.1080/089934....
 
31.
Marasco, E. A., Moshirpour, M., & Moussavi, M. (2017). Flipping the foundation: A multi-year flipped classroom study for a large-scale introductory programming course. The 2017 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition, Paper ID #20170, June 25-28. Retrieved from https://peer.asee.org/flipping... https://doi.org/10.18260/1-2--....
 
32.
Mayer, R. E., Dyck, J. L., & Vilberg, W. (1986). Learning to program and learning to think: what’s the connection? Communications of the ACM, 29(7), 605-610. https://doi.org/10.1145/6138.6....
 
33.
Mazur, E. (2009). Confessions of a converted lecturer. Waterloo University. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?....
 
34.
Mazur, E. (2011). From Questions to Concepts: Interactive Teaching in Physics. Retrieved from https://www.ecampusnews.com/cu....
 
35.
National Academy for Educational Research. (2017). Retrieved from https://www.naer.edu.tw/files/...?.
 
36.
Paez, N. M. (2017). A flipped classroom experience teaching software engineering. 2017 IEEE/ACM 1st International Workshop on Software Engineering Curricula for Millennials (SECM 2017), 16-20, June 29.
 
37.
Phillips, C. R., & Trainor, J. E. (2014). Millennial students and the flipped classroom. Journal of Business and Educational Leadership, 5(1), 102.
 
38.
Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants part 1. On the horizon, 9(5), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1108/107481....
 
39.
Raham, R. R., Vinod P., Kamath M. G., Asha K., & Ramnarayan, K. (2008). Learning approaches of undergraduate medical students to physiology in a non-PBL and partially PBL-oriented curriculum. Adv Physiol Educ, 32, 35–37. https://doi.org/10.1152/advan.....
 
40.
Savery, J. R. (2015). Overview of problem-based learning: Definitions and Distinctions. Essential readings in problem-based learning: Exploring and extending the legacy of Howard S. Barrows, 5-15, Purdue University Press.
 
41.
Sharp, J. H. (2016). The flipped C# programming classroom: What students had to say? In Proceedings of the Second EDSIG Conference on Information Systems and Computing Education, 2(4032), 1-10.
 
42.
Tsukamoto, H., Takemura, Y., Nagumo, H., Ikeda, I., Monden, A., & Matsumoto, K. I. (2015, October). Programming education for primary school children using a textual programming language. In Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE), 2015 IEEE, 1-7.
 
43.
Vernon, D. T. A., & Blake, R. L. (1993). Does problem-based learning work? A meta-analysis of evaluative research. Acad Med., 68(7), 550-563. https://doi.org/10.1097/000018....
 
44.
Zhang, W. (2017). Design a civil engineering micro-lecture platform based on the ARCS model perspective. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 12(1), 107-118. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v....
 
45.
Zhang, Y., Zhou, L., Liu, X., Liu, L., Wu, Y., Zhao, Z., Yi, D., & Yi. D. (2015). The Effectiveness of the Problem-Based Learning Teaching Model for Use in Introductory Chinese Undergraduate Medical Courses: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE, 10(3), e0120884. http://journals.plos.org/ploso... https://doi.org/10.1371/journa....
 
46.
Zhao, L., & Liu, Z. H. (2017). An improved method for teaching system innovation design of physical education major in colleges based on flipped classroom. Revista de la Facultad de Ingenieria, 32(9), 630-635.
 
47.
Zhu, W. L., & Xie, W. J. (2018). Evaluating instructional effects of flipped classroom in university: A case study on electronic business course. International Journal of Distance Education Technologies, 16(1), 45-55. https://doi.org/10.4018/IJDET.....
 
eISSN:1305-8223
ISSN:1305-8215