Integration of ARCS Motivational Model and IT to Enhance Students Learning in the Context of Atayal Culture
Jenyi Chao 1  
Yi-Hsin Yeh 1
Chuan-Hsi Liu 3
More details
Hide details
National Taipei University of Education, Taipei, TAIWAN
Nan Oau Senior High School, Yilan County, TAIWAN
National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, TAIWAN
Online publication date: 2019-05-23
Publication date: 2019-05-23
EURASIA J. Math., Sci Tech. Ed 2019;15(11):em1771
This study involved using teaching strategies from the ARCS Motivational Model to develop new interdisciplinary curricular modules and ability assessments that combine Atayal culture with information technology. The purpose was to explore whether, through pedagogy based on the ARCS motivational model, indigenous middle-school students had a significant improvement in teamwork, creative thinking, and communication abilities, and whether or not students’ interest in information technology and culture was inspired. Research subjects were 17 first-year students in an Atayal Comprehensive Junior-Senior High School in Nan’ao, Yilan County. The research period was 2016-2017, and data was collected from teaching demonstrations, thoughts written down by students, and tests. Research tools include the qualitative written thoughts of the students and a quantitative assessment of the key abilities of teamwork, creative thinking, and communication abilities. There were a total of 33 items. To explore whether there was a significant change in indigenous students’ teamwork, creative thinking, and communication abilities, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for statistical analysis of pre-test and post-test results. Research results show that indigenous students performed significantly better in the post-test than in the pre-test with respect to teamwork, creative thinking, and communication. The thoughts students wrote down after class clearly expressed interest in the cross-disciplinary course combining culture and information technology. Therefore, the course using an ARCS motivational model to combine Atayal culture and information technology significantly improved indigenous students’ teamwork, creative thinking, and communication abilities.
Chao, J. Y. (2013). On the Development of Creativity and Cooperation Skills inIndigenous Elementary School Students During a LEGO Mindstorms NXT Course. Journal of Educational Practice and Research, 26(1), 33-62.
Chao, J. Y. (2017). Unlimited learning: CPS mobile learning in the Atayal tribe. The Weekly News of the Indigenous Science Education Research, 110, 1-5.
Chao, J. Y., Tzeng, P. W., & Po, H. Y. (2017). The Study of Problem Solving Process of E-book PBL Course of Atayal Senior High School Students in Taiwan. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 13(3), 1001-1012.
Chao, J. Y., Xu, R. Y., & Jiang, Z.W. (2015). A Study on the Key Competencies of Indigenous Senior High Students in PBL E-Book Production Courses. In T.H. Meen, S. D. Prior, & A.D.K.T. Lam (Eds.), Applied System Innovation (pp.164). London, UK: Taylor & Francis Group.
Chao, J. Y., Xu, R. Y., Jiang, Z. W., & Yao, L. Y. (2014, Dec). A Study of Cultural Artistry E-book Courses –An Example with Atayal Community High School. Presented at the 2014 International Conf. on Advanced Management Science and Information Engineering, Hong Kong.
Chen, S. C. (2013). The Effect of “ARCS Motivation Model” Combined with Network-news on the Media Literacy of Elementary School 6th Graders (Unpublished M.S. thesis) National Taipei Univ. of Education, Taipei, Taiwan.
Chou, P. Y. (2001, Oct.). Knowledge management and curriculum innovation: Introspective on Interdisciplinary curriculum. Presented at the 2001Knowledge management and curriculum innovation seminar, Hualien.
Chou, S. Y., & Huang, T. H. (2014). The Research of Mathematics Literacy and Aesthetic Experience for Aboriginal Students. Educational Discourses, 2, 45-72.
Chu, Y. H. (2013). An Study of Integrating ARCS Model and Learning Community into Visual Arts Woodblock Print Instruction for Fifth Grade Students (Unpublished M.S. thesis). University of Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan.
Council of Indigenous Peoples. (2017). Atayal. [Online]. Retrieved from
Datig, I., & Ruswick, C. (2013). Four quick flips: Activities for the information literacy classroom. College & Research Libraries News, 74(5), 249-257.
Driscoll, M. P. (1994). Psychology of learning for instruction. Boston, MA : Allyn and Bacon.
Duran, R. L. (1992). Communicative Adaptability: A Review of Conceptualization and Measurement. Communication Quarterly, 40(3), 253-268.
Fatbat, M. (2015, July 29). What is Flipped Classroom?. Education. Parenting. Family Lifestyle. [Web blog message]. Retrieved from
Gou, G. T., & Tang, G. D. (2002). The qualitative study of Atayal adolescents’ learning styles. Educational Research & Information, 10(3), 149-165.
Ivanitskaya, L., Clark, D., Montgomery, G., & Primeau, R. (2002). Interdisciplinary Learning: Process and Outcomes. Innovative Higher Education, 27(2), 95-111.
Jacobs, H. H. (1989). The growing need for interdisciplinary curriculum content, In H. H. Jacobs (Ed.), Interdisciplinary curriculum: Design and implementation (pp.1-11). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Jeng, J. H., & Tang, T. I. (2004). A Model of Knowledge Integration Capability. Journal of Information, Technology and Society, 4(1), 13-45.
Ji, Y. Y. (2012). An action study on the influence of ARCS Motivation Model and Cooperative Learning on learning effect of programming language courses in vocational high school (Unpublished M.S. thesis). National Changhua Univ. of Education, Changhua, Taiwan.
Johnson, L., Adams Becker, Estrada, S., & Freeman, V. (2014). A Horizon Report: 2014 Higher Education Edition, Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium. [Online]. Retrieved from
Johnson, L., Adams Becker, Estrada, S., & Freeman, V. (2015). Horizon Report: 2015 Higher Education Edition, Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium. [Online]. Retrieved from
Johnson, L., Adams Becker, Estrada, S., Freeman, V., & Hall, C. (2016). Horizon Report: 2016 Higher Education Edition, Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium. [Online]. Retrieved from
Jokelova, A. (2012). Effects of Relevance- and Confidence-enhancing motivational strategies, suggested strategies, and statements on academic performance and course satisfaction in undergraduate students of a blended public speaking course (Ph.D. dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertation and theses database. (UMI No.3546504).
Jonassen, D. H. (2000). Computers as mindtools for schools: Engaging critical thinking, 2nd Ed., Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.
Klein, J. T. (2005). Integrative Learning and Interdisciplinary Studies. Peer Review, 7(3), 8-10. Retrived from
Lin, S. Z. (2003). Integration of ARCS Motivational Model in technology and living education. Technology and living education, 36(4), 52–59.
Lin, X. T., & Wang, M. R. (1994). Creativity Assessment Packet Guide. Taipei, Taiwan: PSY publisher.
Lin, Y. T. (2014). The Effect of Applying ARCS Motivation Model and Integrating Information Technology to Geography Teaching on Junior High School Students’ Learning Motivation and Academic Achievement (Unpublished M.S. thesis). National Taichung Univ. of Education, Taichung, Taiwan.
Lo, T. Y. (2015). Action Research Of Implementing The Multicultural Education Integrated Inquiry Teaching Model On Mathematics And Science Achievement And Cultural Learning Of Elementary School Students. Journal of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences, 11(1), 307-335.
Ministry of Education (2012). 2008 Grade 1-9 Curriculum Guidelines. Taipei, Taiwan: Ministry of Education.
National Academy for Educational Research (2015). General Curriculum Guidelines of 12-Year Basic Education with Principal Curriculum, General Curriculum Guidelines of 12-Year Basic Education with Principal Curriculum Q&A.[Online]. Retrieved from
National Academy for Educational Research.(2015).The Directions Governing for the 12-Year Basic Education Curricula. [Online]. Retrieved from
Pan, I. Y. (2002). A Study on the Effects of the Play-based Elementary Science Teaching (Unpublished M.S. thesis). University of Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan.
Promoting mobile learning of middle and elementary school project (2014) The 5C Key Competencies. [Online]. Retrieved from
Redchenkoa, N. N. (2016). Interdisciplinary Learning as a Basis for Formation of Intercultural Communicative Competence. International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 11(13), 6195-6202.
Rosenberg, J. M. (2001). E-learning: Strategies for delivering knowledge in the digital age, New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Rowntree, D. (1982). A dictionary of education, Totowa, NJ: Barnes & Noble Books.
Schommer, M. (1994). Synthesizing epistemological belief research: tentative understandings and provocative confusions. Educational Psychology Review, 6, 293–319.
Schraw, G., & Dennison, R.S. (1994). Assessing Metacognitive Awareness. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 19(4), 460-475.
Shafritz, J. M., Koeppe, R. T., & Soper, E. W. (1998). Facts on file dictionary of education, New York, NY: Facts on File.
Tan, K. T., Liu, M. H., & Yu, M. H. (2008). Multicultural Education. Taipei, Taiwan: Higher Education.
Tang, G. D., & Lin, M. F. (2002). Traits of Learning Styles of Aboriginal Children -- A Study on Atayal Children in Hualien County. Bulletin of Educational Research, 48(2), 149-165.
Toyuw, Y. (2004). Atayal Weaving: Culture and Identity. Taipei, Taiwan: Daoxiang publisher.
Wicks, P. A. M. (2010). MUVEing history into the 21st century: A study of student motivation (Ph.D. dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertation and theses database. (UMI No.3404883).
Worry, V. A. (2011). A Comparison of High School Geometry Student Performance and Motivation between Traditional and Project-Based Instruction Techniques (Ph.D. dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertation and theses database. (UMI No. 3478823).
Wu, P. H., & Chang, M. R. (2017). Effects of a Motivation Theory-based Board Game Model on Students’ Learning Performances in an Elementary School Mathematics Course. Journal of Educational Research, 282, 132-145.
Wu, P. H., & Wu, H. K. (2010). Aboriginal Students’ Learning in a Design-Based Science Classroom. Chinese Journal of Science Education, 18(4), 277-304.
Wu, S. H., Kao, H. L., & Ou, H.Y. (2016). Study of indigenous and Han Chinese elementary school students’ motivation and the interests in Science Learning. Science Education, 2, 73-91.
Yang, T. H. (2010). Using ARCS Motivational Model to Promote Technical and Vocational College Students’ Motivation to Learn and Achievement: A Quasi-Experiment Study (Unpublished M.S. thesis). National Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
Yu, Z. J. (2014). Manabu Sato “Learning Community”.Taiwan Educational Review Monthly, 3(5), 122-125.