RESEARCH PAPER
Mapping the Factors Influencing Success of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) in Higher Education
 
More details
Hide details
1
University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
Online publish date: 2018-05-12
Publish date: 2018-05-12
 
EURASIA J. Math., Sci Tech. Ed 2018;14(7):2995–3012
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) is a new phenomenon in online learning that has aroused increasing interest by researchers as a significant contribution to improving educational system quality and openness. The purpose of this paper is to compile and analyze MOOC research that has been published between 2012 and 2016. A systematic analysis technique was employed and Template Analysis (TA) approach was used for mapping MOOC research into three dimensions in accordance with the Biggs 3P model. First dimension is Presage, include the following factors: Learners’ characteristics with sub-factors (learner demographics, learner motivation, and interactivity) and instructor. Second, Process, including factors of pedagogy, pattern of engagement, instructional design, assessment, credit, plagiarism, sustainability, and learning analytics. Third dimension is Product, including factors of student dropout rate and MOOC quality. This classification is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview for readers interested in MOOCs who seek to understand the critical success factors influencing MOOC success.
 
REFERENCES (121)
1.
Abeer, W., & B. Miri, B. (2014). Students’ preferences and views about learning in a MOOC. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 152, 318-323. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbsp....
 
2.
Adamopoulos, P. (2013). What makes a great MOOC? An interdisciplinary analysis of student retention in online courses, Paper presented at the Thirty Fourth International Conference on Information Systems, Milan. Retrieved on 6 December, 2016 from http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~pa....
 
3.
Admiraal, W., Huisman, B., & Pilli, O. (2015). Assessment in Massive Open Online Courses. Journal of e-Learning, 13(4), 207-216. Retrieved from http://www.ejel.org.
 
4.
Admiraal, W., Huisman, B., & Ven, M. van de (2014). Self- and peer assessment in Massive Open Online Courses. International Journal of Higher Education, 3(3), 119-128. https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v....
 
5.
Ahn, J., Weng, C., & Butler, B. S. (2013, January). The dynamics of open, peer-to-peer learning: what factors influence participation in the P2P University? In System Sciences (HICSS), 2013 46th Hawaii International Conference on (pp. 3098-3107). IEEE, Wailea, Maui, HI.
 
6.
Alraimi, K. M., Zo, H., & Ciganek, A. P. (2015). Understanding the MOOCs continuance: The role of openness and reputation. Computers & Education, 80, 28-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comp....
 
7.
Amo, D. (2013). MOOCs: Experimental Approaches For Quality in Pedagogical and Design Fundamentals. TEEM '13, November 14 - 15 2013, Salamanca, Spain. https://doi.org/10.1145/253653....
 
8.
Anderson, A., Huttenlocher, D., Kleinberg, J., & Leskovec, J. (2014, April). Engaging with massive online courses. In Proceedings of the 23rd international conference on World wide web (pp. 687-698). ACM. https://doi.org/10.1145/256648....
 
9.
Anderson, T., & Zawacki-Richter, O. (2014). Conclusion: Towards a Research Agenda. In O. ZawackiRichter & T. Anderson (eds.), Online distance education: Towards a research agenda (p. 485– 492). Edmonton, Canada: AU Press. https://doi.org/10.1057/978113....
 
10.
Aparicio, M., Bacao, F., & Oliveira, T. (2014, May). MOOC’s business models: Turning black swans into gray swans. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems and Design of Communication (pp. 45-49). https://doi.org/10.1145/261816....
 
11.
Attride-Stirling, J. (2001). Thematic networks: an analytic tool for qualitative research. Qualitative research, 1(3), 385-405. https://doi.org/10.1177/146879....
 
12.
Bayne, S., & Ross, J. (2014). The pedagogy of the Massive Open Online Course: the UK view. The Higher Education Academy, 1-76. Retrieved from https://www.heacademy.ac.uk/sy....
 
13.
Belanger, Y., & Thornton, J. (2013). Bioelectricity: a quantitative approach Duke University’s first MOOC. Retrieved from http://dukespace.lib.duke.edu/....
 
14.
Biggs, J. (1993). From theory to practice: A cognitive systems approach. Higher Education Research & Development, 12(1), 73- 85. https://doi.org/10.1080/072943....
 
15.
Billington, P. J., & Fronmueller, M. P. (2013). MOOCs and the future of higher education. Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, 13(3/4), 36-43. Retrieved from http://na-businesspress.homest....
 
16.
Bozkurt, A., Keskin, N. O., & de Waard, I. (2016). Research Trends in Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) Theses and Dissertations: Surfing the Tsunami Wave. Open Praxis, 8(3), 203-221. https://doi.org/10.5944/openpr....
 
17.
Bruff, D. O., Fisher, D. H., McEwen, K. E., & Smith, B. E. (2013). Wrapping a MOOC: Student perceptions of an experiment in blended learning. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 9(2), 187-199. Retrieved from http://jolt.merlot.org/vol9no2....
 
18.
Bryman, A., & Hardy, M. A. (Eds.). (2009). Handbook of data analysis. Sage.
 
19.
Burd, E. L., Smith, S. P., & Reisman, S. (2014). Exploring Business Models for MOOCs in Higher Education. Innovative Higher Education, 40(1), 37-49. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10755....
 
20.
Butcher, N., Hoosen, S., Uvalić-Trumbić, S., & Daniel, J. (2014). A guide to quality in post-traditional online higher education. Dallas, Academic Partnerships.
 
21.
Chandrasekaran, M., Ragupathi, K., Kan, M., & Tan, B. (2015, December). Towards feasible instructor intervention in MOOC discussion forums. Paper presented at the Thirty-Sixth International Conference on Information Systems, Fort Worth, TX.
 
22.
Chen, Y. (2014). Investigating MOOCs through blog mining. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 15(2). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrod....
 
23.
Christensen, G., Steinmetz, A., Alcorn, B., Bennett, A., Woods, D., & Emanuel, E. J. (2013). The MOOC Phenomenon: Who Takes Massive Open Online Courses and Why? Working Paper. Retrieved from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/pa....
 
24.
Clarà, M., & Barberà, E. (2014). Three problems with the connectivist conception of learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 30(3), 197-206. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.1....
 
25.
Clow, D. (2013, April). MOOCs and the funnel of participation. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge (pp. 185-189). ACM. https://doi.org/10.1145/246029....
 
26.
Conole, G. (2013). MOOCs as disruptive technologies: strategies for enhancing the learner experience and quality of MOOCs. RED. Revista de Educación a Distancia, (50). http://hdl.handle.net/10760/19....
 
27.
Daradoumis, T., Bassi, R., Xhafa, F., & Caballe, S. (2013). A review on massive eLearning (MOOC) design, delivery and assessment. In Proceedings – 2013 8th International Conference on P2P, Parallel, Grid, Cloud and Internet Computing, 3PGCIC 2013 (pp. 208–213). Piscataway, NJ: IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/3PGCIC....
 
28.
Davis, H., Dickens, K., Leon, M., del Mar Sanchez Ver, M., & White, S. (2014). MOOCs for universities and learners: An analysis of motivating factors. In 6th International Conference on Computer Supported Education 01- 03 Apr 2014.
 
29.
DeBoer, J., Ho, A. D., Stump, G. S., & Breslow, L. (2014). Changing “course” reconceptualizing educational variables for massive open online courses. Educational Researcher, https://doi.org/10.3102/001318....
 
30.
del Mar Sánchez-Vera, M., & Prendes-Espinosa, M. P. (2015). Beyond objective testing and peer assessment: alternative ways of assessment in MOOCs. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 12(1), 119-130. https://doi.org/10.7238/rusc.v....
 
31.
Dellarocas, C., & van Alstyne, M. (2013). Money models for MOOCs. Communications of the ACM, 56(8), 25-28. https://doi.org/10.3102/001318....
 
32.
Downes, S. (2013). The quality of massive open online courses. International Handbook of E-learning, 1, 65-77. Retrieved from http://mooc.efquel.org/files/2....
 
33.
Ebben, M., & Murphy, J. S. (2014). Unpacking MOOC scholarly discourse: a review of nascent MOOC scholarship. Learning, Media and Technology, 39(3), 328–345. https://doi.org/10.108 0/17439884.2013.878352.
 
34.
Eisenberg, A. (2013, March 2). Keeping an eye on online test-takers. New York Times, 2. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03....
 
35.
El-Hmoudova, D. (2014). MOOCs motivation and communication in the cyber learning environment. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 131, 29-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbsp....
 
36.
Engle, D., Mankoff, C., & Carbrey, J. (2015). Coursera’s introductory human physiology course: Factors that characterize successful completion of a MOOC. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 16(2). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrod....
 
37.
Evans, S., & Myrick, J. G. (2015). How MOOC instructors view the pedagogy and purposes of massive open online courses. Distance Education, 36(3), 295-311. https://doi.org/10.1080/015879....
 
38.
Ferguson, R., & Clow, D. (2015, March 16-20). Examining engagement: analyzing learner subpopulations in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). LAK’15 94 Proceedings of Fifth International Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge (pp. 51-58). Poughkeepsie, NY, USA.
 
39.
Ferguson, R., & Whitelock, D. (2014, September). Taking on different roles: how educators position themselves in MOOCs. In European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning (pp. 562-563). Geneva, Switzerland: Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-....
 
40.
Ferguson, R., Clow, D., Beale, R., Cooper, A. J., Morris, N., Bayne, S., & Woodgate, A. (2015). Moving through MOOCS: pedagogy, learning design and patterns of engagement. In Design for teaching and learning in a networked world (pp. 70-84). Switzerland: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-....
 
41.
Fischer, G. (2014). Beyond hype and underestimation: Identifying research challenges for the future of MOOCs. Distance Education, 35(2), 149–158. https://doi.org/10.1080/015879....
 
42.
Freitas, S. I., Morgan, J., & Gibson, D. (2015). Will MOOCs transform learning and teaching in higher education? Engagement and course retention in online learning provision. British Journal of Educational Technology, 46(3), 455-471. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.1....
 
43.
Gamage, D., Fernando, S., & Perera, I. (2015, August). Quality of MOOCs: A review of literature on effectiveness and quality aspects. In Ubi-Media Computing (UMEDIA), 2015 8th International Conference on (pp. 224-229). IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/UMEDIA....
 
44.
Ghaffar, F. A., Yusop, F. D., Sulaiman, A. H., Hassan, Z. F. A., Hamzaid, N. A., Firdaus, A. S., Hassim, N. (2016). Preparing Academics for Open Access Education: UM’s Journey from Moodle to MOOCs. Paper presented at the Association of Southeast Asian Institutions of Higher Learning (ASAIHL), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia.
 
45.
Glance, D. G., Forsey, M., & Riley, M. (2013). The pedagogical Foundations of Massive Open Online Courses. First Monday: Peer-Reviewed Journal on the Internet, 18(5). https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v18....
 
46.
Green, K. (2013). Mission, MOOCs & money. AGB, Trusteeship Magazine, 21(1), 915. https://www.agb.org/trusteeshi....
 
47.
Greene, J. A., Oswald, C. A., & Pomerantz, J. (2015, May 8). Predictors of retention and achievement in a massive open online course. American Educational Research Journal (Online First). https://doi.org/10.3102/000283....
 
48.
Grunewald, F., Meinel, C., Totschnig, M., & Willems, C. (2013). Designing MOOCs for the support of multiple learning styles. In D. H. Leo et al. (Eds.), Scaling up learning for sustained impact (pp. 371-382). Berlin, Germany: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-....
 
49.
Guo, P. J., Kim, J., & Rubin, R. (2014). How video production affects student engagement: an empirical study of MOOC videos. Proceedings of the first ACM conference on Learning@ scale conference March 4- 5, 2014 (pp. 41-50). Atlanta, GA, USA. https://doi.org/10.1145/255632....
 
50.
Haavind, S., & Sistek-Chandler, C. (2015). The Emergent Role of the MOOC Instructor: A Qualitative Study of Trends toward Improving Future Practice. International Journal on E-Learning, 14(3), 331-350.
 
51.
Hew, K. (2014). Promoting engagement in online courses: What strategies can we learn from three highly rated MOOCS. British Journal of Educational Technology, 47(2), 320-342. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.1....
 
52.
Hew, K. F., & Cheung, W. S. (2014). Students’ and instructors’ use of massive open online courses (MOOCs): Motivations and challenges. Educational Research Review, 12, 45-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edur....
 
53.
Hill, P. (2013). Emerging Student Patterns in MOOCs: A Graphical View. e-Literate. Retrieved from http://mfeldstein.com/emerging....
 
54.
Ho, A. D., Reich, J., Nesterko, S. O., Seaton, D. T., Mullaney, T., Waldo, J., & Chuang, I. (2014). HarvardX and MITx: The first year of open online courses, fall 2012 – summer 2013. HarvardX and MITx Working Papers, No. 1. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2....
 
55.
Hollands, F. M., & Tirthali, D. (2014). MOOCs: Expectations and reality: Full report. New York, NY: Columbia University. Retrieved from http://www.cbcse.org/wordpress....
 
56.
Hone, K., & El Said, G. (2016). Exploring the factors affecting MOOC retention: A survey study. Computers & Education, 98, 157-168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comp....
 
57.
Hood, N., & Littlejohn, A. (2016). Quality in MOOCs: Surveying the Terrain. Retrieved from http://oasis.col.org/bitstream....
 
58.
Istrate, O., & Kestens, A. (2015, April). Developing and monitoring a MOOC: The IFRC experience. Paper presented at the 11th International Scientific Conference eLearning and Software for Education, Bucharest, Romania. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/147074....
 
59.
Jansen, D., Rosewell, J., & Kear, K. (2016). Quality Frameworks for MOOCs. In: Open Educ. from OERs to MOOCs. Springer, Berlin, pp 261–281.
 
60.
Jiang, S., Williams, A. E., Warschauer, M., He, W., & O’Dowd, D. K. (2014). Influence of incentives on performance in a pre-college biology MOOC. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 15(5). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrod....
 
61.
Jordan, K. (2014). Initial trends in enrolment and completion of massive open online courses. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 15(1). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrod....
 
62.
Kalman, Y. M. (2014). A race to the bottom: MOOCs and higher education business models. Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning, 29(1), 5-14. https://doi.org/10.1080/026805....
 
63.
Kay, J., Reimann, P., Diebold, E., & Kummerfeld, B. (2013). MOOCs: So many learners, so much potential.... IEEE Intelligent Systems, 28(3), 70 –77. https://doi.org/10.1109/MIS.20....
 
64.
Khalil, H., & Ebner, M. (2014). MOOCs completion rates and possible methods to improve retention: A literature review. In World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications (pp. 1305-1313). https://elearningblog.tugraz.a....
 
65.
King, N. (2012). Doing template analysis. Qualitative organizational research: Core methods and current challenges. In G. Symon & C. Cassell (Eds.), Qualitative organizational research. Core methods and current challenges, Sage (pp. 426‐450). https://doi.org/10.4135/978152....
 
66.
Kizilcec, R., Piech, C., & Schneider, E. (2013). Deconstructing disengagement: analyzing learner subpopulations in massive open online courses. In D. Suthers, K. Verbert, E. Duval & X. Ochoa (Eds.), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge, April 8-12, (pp.170-179). Leuven, Belgium. https://doi.org/10.1145/246029....
 
67.
Kolås, L., Nordseth, H., & Hoem, J. (2016, September). Interactive modules in a MOOC. In Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training (ITHET), 2016 15th International Conference on (pp. 1-8). IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/ITHET.....
 
68.
Kulkarni, C., Wei, K. P., Le, H., Chia, D., Papadopoulos, K., Cheng, J., . . . Klemmer, S. R. (2013). Peer and self-assessment in massive online classes. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI), 20(6), 33. https://doi.org/10.1145/250505....
 
69.
Kursun, E. (2016). Does formal credit work for MOOC-like learning environments? International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(3). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrod....
 
70.
Lackner, E., Ebner, M., & Khalil, M. (2015). MOOCs as granular systems: Design patterns to foster participant activity. eLearning Papers, 42, 28-37. https://pure.tugraz.at/portal/....
 
71.
Li, N., Verma, H., Skevi, A., Zufferey, G., Blom, J., & Dillenbourg, P. (2014). Watching MOOCs together: Investigating co-located MOOC study groups. Distance Education, 35(2), 217–233. https://doi.org/10.1080/015879....
 
72.
Lin, Y.-L., Lin, H.-W., & Hung, T.-T. (2015). Value hierarchy for massive open online courses. Computers in Human Behaviour, 53, 408-418. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.....
 
73.
Littlejohn, A., Hood, N., Milligan, C., & Mustain, P. (2016). Learning in MOOCs: Motivations and self-regulated learning in MOOCs. The Internet and Higher Education, 29, 40-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ihed....
 
74.
Liyanagunawardena, T. R., Adams, A. A., & Williams, S. A. (2013). MOOCs: a systematic study of the published literature 2008-2012. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 14(3), 202-227. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrod....
 
75.
Liyanagunawardena, T. R., Lundqvist, K. Ø., & Williams, S. A. (2015). Who are with us: MOOC learners on a FutureLearn course. British Journal of Educational Technology, 46(3), 557-569. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.1....
 
76.
Maas, A., Heather, C., Do, C. T., Brandman, R., Koller, D., & Ng, A. (2014). Offering verified credentials in massive open online courses: MOOCs and technology to advance learning and learning research (Ubiquity symposium). Ubiquity, 2014(May), 2. https://doi.org/10.1145/259168....
 
77.
Mackness, J., Waite, M., Roberts, G., & Lovegrove, E. (2013). Learning in a small, task-oriented, connectivist MOOC: Pedagogical issues and implications for higher education. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 14(4). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrod....
 
78.
Mamgain, N., Sharma, A., & Goyal, P. (2014, December). Learner's perspective on video-viewing features offered by MOOC providers: Coursera and edX. In MOOC, Innovation and Technology in Education (MITE), 2014 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 331-336). IEEE.
 
79.
Margaryan, A., Bianco, M., & Littlejohn, A. (2015). Instructional quality of massive open online courses (MOOCs). Computers & Education, 80, 77–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comp....
 
80.
Marshall, S. (2014). Exploring the ethical implications of MOOCs. Distance Education, 35(2), 250-262. https://doi.org/10.1080/015879....
 
81.
Meyer, J. P., & Zhu, S. (2013). Fair and equitable measurement of student learning in MOOCs: An introduction to item response theory, scale linking, and score equating. Research & Practice in Assessment, 8(1), 26-39. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fullt....
 
82.
Milligan, C., Littlejohn, A., & Margaryan, A. (2013). Patterns of engagement in connectivist MOOCs. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 9(2), 149-159. Retrieved from http://jolt.merlot.org/vol9no2....
 
83.
Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G., & Prisma Group. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS medicine, 6(7), e1000097. https://doi.org/10.1371/journa....
 
84.
Morris, N. P. (2014). How Digital Technologies, Blended Learning and MOOCs Will Impact the Future of Higher Education. International Association for Development of the Information Society.
 
85.
Morris, N. P., Hotchkiss, S., & Swinnerton, B. (2015). Can demographic information predict MOOC learner outcomes? In Proceedings of the European MOOC Stakeholder Summit (pp. 199-207).
 
86.
Morris, N., & Lambe, J. (2014). Palgrave study skills studying a MOOC: A guide. London, UK: Palgrave McMillan.
 
87.
Munoz-Merino, P., Ruiperez-Valiente, J., Alario-Hoyos, C., Perez-Sanagustin, M., & Delgado Kloos, C. (2015). Precise effectiveness strategy for analyzing the effectiveness of students with educational resources and activities in MOOCs. Computers in Human Behaviour, 47, 108-118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.....
 
88.
Najafi, H., Rolheiser, C., Harrison, L., & Håklev, S. (2015). University of Toronto instructors’ experiences with developing MOOCs. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 16(3). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrod....
 
89.
Nelson, S. (2014). Measuring our first eight courses. Retrieved on December 15, 2015. Retrieved from https://about.futurelearn.com/....
 
90.
North, S. M., Richardson, R., & North, M. M. (2014). To adapt MOOCs, or not? That is no longer the question. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 2(1), 69-72. https://www.learntechlib.org/p....
 
91.
Parr, C. (2013). MOOCs Completion Rates „below 7%‟, Times Higher Education. Retrieved from http://www.timeshighereducatio... 7/2003710.
 
92.
Petticrew, M., & Roberts, H. (2008). Systematic reviews in the social sciences: A practical guide. John Wiley & Sons. https://doi.org/10.1002/978047....
 
93.
Phan, T., McNeil, S. G., & Robin, B. R. (2016). Students’ patterns of engagement and course performance in a Massive Open Online Course. Computers & Education, 95, 36-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comp....
 
94.
Piech, C., Huang, J., Chen, Z., Do, C., Ng, A., & Koller, D. (2013). Tuned models of peer assessment in MOOCs. arXiv preprint arXiv:1307.2579.
 
95.
Raffaghelli, J., Cucchiara, S., & Persico, D. (2015). Methodological approaches in MOOC research: Retracing the myth of Proteus. British Journal of Educational Technologies, 46(3), 488–509. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.1....
 
96.
Raposo-Rivas, M., Martinez-Figueira, E., & Campos, J. A. S. (2015). A study on the pedagogical components of massive online courses. Comunicar, 44, 27-35. https://doi.org/10.3916/c44-20....
 
97.
Reich, J. (2014). MOOC completion and retention in the context of student intent. EDUCAUSEreview online. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ero/ar....
 
98.
Reilly, E. D., Stafford, R. E., Williams, K. M., & Corliss, S. B. (2014). Evaluating the validity and applicability of automated essay scoring in two massive open online courses. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 15(5), 83-98. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrod....
 
99.
Rivard, R. (2013). No-bid MOOCs. Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved from http://www.insidehighered.com/....
 
100.
Rodriguez, C. O. (2012). MOOCs and the AI-Stanford like courses: Two successful and distinct course formats for massive open online courses. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, 15(2). Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fullt....
 
101.
Ross, J., Sinclair, C., Knox, J., & Macleod, H. (2014). Teacher experiences and academic identity: The missing components of MOOC pedagogy. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 10(1), 57. Retrieved from http://www.jolt.merlot.org/vol....
 
102.
Sandeen, C. (2013a). Assessment’s place in the new MOOC world. Research & Practice in Assessment Journal, 8, 5-13. Retrieved from http://www.rpajournal.com/dev/....
 
103.
Sandeen, C. (2013b). Integrating MOOCS into traditional higher education: The emerging “MOOC 3.0” era. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 45(6), 34-39. https://doi.org/10.1080/000913....
 
104.
Schulze, A. S. (2014). Massive open online courses (MOOCs) and completion rates: Are self-directed adult learners the most successful at MOOCs? (Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, California). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1549976283).
 
105.
Sharples, M., Adams, A., Ferguson, R., Gaved, M., McAndrew, P., Rienties, B., Weller, M., & Whitelock, D. (2014). Innovating Pedagogy 2014: Open University Innovation Report 3. Milton Keynes: The Open University.
 
106.
Sharples, M., McAndrew, P., Weller, M., Ferguson, R., FitzGerald, E., Hirst, T., & Gaved, M. (2013). Innovating Pedagogy 2013: Open University Innovation Report 2. Milton Keynes: The Open University.
 
107.
Shen, C., & Kuo, C. (2015). Learning in massive open online courses: Evidence from social media mining. Computers in Human Behavior, 51, 568-577. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.....
 
108.
Tabba, Y., & Medouri, A. (2013). LASyM: A learning analytics system for MOOCs. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 4(5), 113–119. https://doi.org/10.14569/IJACS....
 
109.
Toven-Lindsey, B., Rhoads, R. A., & Lozano, J. B. (2015). Virtually unlimited classrooms: Pedagogical practices in massive open online courses. The Internet and Higher Education, 24, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ihed....
 
110.
Veletsianos, G., & Shepherdson, P. (2016). A Systematic Analysis and Synthesis of the Empirical MOOC Literature Published in 2013–2015. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(2). https://doi.org/10.19173/irrod....
 
111.
Veletsianos, G., Collier, A., & Schneider, E. (2015). Digging deeper into learners' experiences in MOOCs: Participation in social networks outside of MOOCs, notetaking and contexts surrounding content consumption. British Journal of Educational Technology, 46(3), 570-587. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.1....
 
112.
Waite, M., Mackness, J., Roberts, G., & Lovegrove, E. (2013). Liminal participants and skilled orienteers: Learner participation in a MOOC for new lecturers. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 9(2), 200-215. http://jolt.merlot.org/vol9no2....
 
113.
Wen, M., Yang, D., & Rosé, D. (2014b). Linguistic Reflections of Student Engagement in Massive Open Online Courses. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media. Retrieved from http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~mwen/pa....
 
114.
Young, J. R. (2013). Beyond the MOOC hype: A guide to higher education’s high-tech disruption. The Chronicle of Higher Education.
 
115.
Yousef, A. M. F., Chatti, M. A., Schroeder, U., & Wosnitza, M. (2014c). What Drives a Successful MOOC? An Empirical Examination of Criteria to Assure Design Quality of MOOCs. In Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), 2014 IEEE 14th International Conference on (pp. 44-48). IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICALT.....
 
116.
Yousef, A. M. F., Chatti, M. A., Schroeder, U., Wosnitza, M., & Jakobs, H. (2014b). MOOC - A Review of the State-of-the-Art. In Proceedings of the CSEDU 2014 conference, Vol. 3, pp. 9-20. INSTICC, 2014.
 
117.
Yousef, A. M. F., Wahid, U., Chatti, M. A., Schroeder, U., & Wosnitza, M. (2015e). The Effect of Peer Assessment Rubrics on Learners' Satisfaction and Performance within a Blended MOOC Environment. In Proceedings of the CSEDU 2015 conference, (pp. 148-159). INSTICC, 2015. https://doi.org/10.5220/000549....
 
118.
Yuan, L., & Powell, S. (2013). MOOCs and open education: Implications for higher education. JISC Cetis, UK. https://doi.org/10.13140/2.1.5....
 
119.
Yusop, F. D. (2015). A dataset of factors that influence preservice teachers' intentions to use Web 2.0 technologies in future teaching practices. British Journal of Educational Technology, 46(5), 1075-1080. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.1....
 
120.
Yusop, F. D., & Siti Mariam, M. A. B. (2017). Resistance towards wiki: implications for designing successful wiki-supported collaborative learning experiences. Universal Access in the Information Society (UAIS), 16(2), 349–360. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10209....
 
121.
Zheng, S., Rosson, M. B., Shih, P. C., & Carroll, J. M. (2015). Understanding student motivation, behaviors and perceptions in MOOCs. Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing March 14 - 18, 2015 (pp. 1882-1895). Vancouver, BC, Canada. https://doi.org/10.1145/267513....
 
eISSN:1305-8223
ISSN:1305-8215