RESEARCH PAPER
Preservice Science Teachers’ Instructional Design Competence: Characteristics and Correlations
Ronghua Zhang 1  
,  
Xiufeng Liu 2
,  
Yang Yang 3
,  
 
 
More details
Hide details
1
College of Teacher Education, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen, Shanxi, P. R. CHINA
2
Department of Learning and Instruction, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, U.S.A.
3
College of Education, Qingdao University, Qingdao, P. R. CHINA
Online publish date: 2017-12-23
Publish date: 2017-12-23
 
EURASIA J. Math., Sci Tech. Ed 2018;14(3):1075–1096
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Underpinned by a holistic, dynamic, and process-oriented view of teacher competences, this study provides an analytic hierarchy system of instructional design competence (IDC) for evaluating teachers’ IDC based on the mental model of instructional design. Additionally, this study quantitatively explores the IDC characteristics and correlations of 118 preservice science teachers at Shanxi Normal University in China, who learned the ADTRE (analyzing, designing, teaching, revising, and evaluating/improving) instructional model, based on reflection and feedback. Using lesson planning (LP) scoring rubrics, we analyzed 113 lesson plans from 56 participants majoring in biological science and 57 in biological technology. We present the ADTRE model and discuss relationships between preservice science teachers’ academic achievement and IDC. Major findings include a positive correlation between preservice science teachers’ IDC scores and their course grades in Advanced Mathematics and Cell Biology and concept mapping skills. There was a negative correlation between preservice science teachers’ IDC and course grades in Principles of Genetic Engineering and Technology, and no significant correlations existed between IDC and course grades for teacher education courses. Our findings reveal the nature of preservice science teachers’ IDC, a potential for improvement in university teacher education curricula, and a need for further research.
 
REFERENCES (124)
1.
Abd-El-Khalick, F. (2006). Preservice and experienced biology teachers’ global and specific subject matter structures: Implications for conceptions of pedagogical content knowledge. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 2(1), 1-29. doi:10.12973/ejmste/75435.
 
2.
Akiba, M., LeTendre, G. K., & Scribner, J. P. (2007). Teacher quality, opportunity gap, and national achievement in 46 countries. Educational Researcher, 36(7), 369-387. doi:10.3102/0013189X07308739.
 
3.
Allen, D. W., & Ryan, K. (1969). Microteaching. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co.
 
4.
Ambrose, S. A., Bridges, M. W., DiPietro, M., Lovett, M. C., & Norman, M. K. (2010). How learning works: 7 research-based principles for smart teaching. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
 
5.
Amobi, F. A. (2005). Preservice teachers’ reflectivity on the sequence and consequences of teaching actions in a microteaching experience. Teacher Education Quarterly, Winter, 115-130. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/23....
 
6.
Anagnostopoulos, D., Sykes, G., McCrory, R., Cannata, M., & Frank, K. (2010). Dollars, distinction, or duty? The meaning of the national board for professional teaching standards for teachers’ work and collegial relations. American Journal of Education, 116(3), 337-369. doi:10.1086/651412.
 
7.
Anderson, L.W., Krathwohl, D.R., Airasian, P.W., Cruikshank, K.A., Mayer, R.E., Pintrich, P.R., Raths, & J., Wittrock, M.C. (2001). A Taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon.
 
8.
Angeli, C., & Valanides, N. (2005). Preservice elementary teachers as information and communication technology designs: An instructional systems design model based on an expanded view of pedagogical content knowledge. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 21(4), 292-302. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2729.2005.00135.x.
 
9.
Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL). (2011). Australian Professional Standards for Teachers (APST). Retrieved from https://www.aitsl.edu.au/docs/....
 
10.
Aydeniz, M., & Dogan, A. (2016), Exploring preservice science teachers’ pedagogical capacity for formative assessment through analyses of student answers. Research in Science & Technological Education, 34(2), 125–141. doi:10.1080/02635143.2015.1092954.
 
11.
Aydin, S., Demirdogen, B., Tarkin, A., Kutucu, S., Ekiz, B., Akin, F. N., Tuysuz, M., & Uzuntiryak E. (2013). Providing a set of research-based practices to support preservice teachers’ long-term professional development as learners of science teaching. Science Education, 97(6), 903–935. doi:10.1002/sce.21080.
 
12.
Ball, D. L., & McDiarmid, G. W. (1990). The subject matter preparation of teachers. W. R. Houston (Ed.), Handbook for Research on Teacher Education. New York: Macmillan. Retrieved from http://www.buffalo.edu/library... doi:10.1111/teth.12165.
 
13.
Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2012). Flip your classroom: Reach every student in every class every day. International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE). Alexandria, VA: International Society for Technology in Education. doi:10.1111/teth.12165.
 
14.
Beyer, C. J. (2009). Using reform-based criteria to support the development of preservice elementary teachers’ pedagogical design capacity for analyzing science curriculum materials (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.buffalo.edu/library....
 
15.
Beyer, C. J., & Davis, E. A. (2012). Developing preservice elementary teachers’ pedagogical design capacity for reform-based curriculum design. Curriculum Inquiry, 42(3), 386–413. doi:10.1111/j.1467-873X.2012.00599.x.
 
16.
Bi, H. L., & Lu, W. (2000). Task analysis theory and chemistry instructional design. Journal of the Chinese Society of Education, (4), 49-51.
 
17.
Bowman, S. F. (2015). Evaluation in instructional design practice: A view from the stakeholders (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.buffalo.edu/library....
 
18.
Boz, N., & Boz, Y. (2008). A qualitative case study of prospective chemistry teachers’ knowledge about instructional strategies: Introducing particulate theory science. Teacher Education, 19(2), 135–156. doi:10.1007/s10972-007-9087-y.
 
19.
Branch, R. M., & Gustafson, K. L. (2002). Survey of instructional development models (4th ed.). Syracuse University: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology Resources. Retrieved from: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fullt... doi:10.1002/pfi.4140370509.
 
20.
Brill, J. M. (2016). Investigation peer review as a systemic pedagogy for developing the design knowledge, skills, and disposition of novice instructional design students. Educational Technology Research and Development. doi:10.1007/s11423-015-9421-6.
 
21.
Bruner, J. (1960). The Process of Education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
 
22.
Bruner, J. (1977). The process of education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (Original work published in 1960).
 
23.
Bümen, N. T. (2007). Effects of the original versus revised Bloom’s taxonomy on lesson planning skills: A Turkish study among preservice teachers. International Review of Education, 53(4), 339-454. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/27....
 
24.
Caena, F. (2014). Teacher competence frameworks in Europe: Policy-as-discourse and policy-as-practice. European Journal of Education, 49(3). doi:10.1111/ejed.12088.
 
25.
Cantrell, P., Young, S., & Moore, A. (2003). Factors affecting science teaching efficacy of preservice elementary teachers. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 14(3), 177-192.
 
26.
Chen, X. Z. (2002). An analysis of rural elementary teachers’ instructional design competences for classroom teaching and influencing factors (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.wanfangdata.com.cn/.
 
27.
Cheng, E. C. K. (2014). Learning study: Nurturing the instructional design and teaching competency of preservice teachers. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 42(1), 51–66. doi:10.1080/1359866X.2013.869546.
 
28.
Clark, R. C., & Lyons, C. (2010). Graphics for learning: Proven guidelines for planning, designing, and evaluating visuals in training materials. Greensboro, North Carolina, U.S.A.: Center for Creative Leadership. doi:10.1109/TPC.2005.849658.
 
29.
Cochran, K. F., DeRuiter, J. A., King, R. A. (1993). Pedagogical content knowing: An integrative model for teacher preparation. Journal of Teacher Education, 44, 263-272.
 
30.
Danielewicz, J. (2001). Teaching selves: Identity, pedagogy, and teacher education. Albany, NY: SUNY.
 
31.
Darling-Hammond, L., Holtzman, D. J., Gatlin, S. J., & Heilig, J. V. (2005). Does teacher preparation matter? Evidence about teacher certification, teach for America, and teacher effectiveness. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 13, 42. doi:10.14507/epaa. v13n42.2005.
 
32.
Davis, E. A., Beyer, C., Forbes, C., & Stevens, S. (2011). Understanding pedagogical design capacity through teachers’ narratives. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27, 797-810. doi:10.1016/j.tate.2011.01.005.
 
33.
Deakin Crick, R. (2008). Pedagogy for citizenship. In: F. Oser & W. Veugelers (Eds.). Getting involved: Global citizenship development and sources of moral values. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
 
34.
DeLorenzo, W. E. (1975). Microteaching as a Transitional Technique to Student Teaching Foreign Language Annals. Foreign Language Annals, 8(3), 239-245. doi:10.1111/j.1944-9720.1975.tb01555.x.
 
35.
Department for Education (DfE). (2011). Teachers’ standards. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/....
 
36.
Dick, W., Carey, L., & Carey, J. O. (1996). The systematic design of instruction (4th ed.). New York: Harper Collins. doi:10.1007_s11423-006-9606-0.ris.
 
37.
Dick, W., Carey, L., & Carey, J. O. (2002). The systematic design of instruction (5th ed.). (Photocopied version). Longman. Beijing: Higher Education Press.
 
38.
Dick, W., Carey, L., & Carey, J. O. (2004). The systematic design of instruction (5th ed.). (Q. Wang, Trans.). Beijing: Higher Education Press.
 
39.
Doyle, M., & Holm, D. T. (1998). Instructional planning through stories: Rethinking the traditional lesson plan. Teacher Education Quarterly, 25(3), 69-83.
 
40.
Forbes, C. T. (2009). Preservice elementary teachers’ development of pedagogical design capacity for inquiry-an activity-theoretical perspective. Retrieved from http://www.buffalo.edu/library....
 
41.
Forbes, C. T., & Davis, E. A. (2010). Curriculum design for inquiry: Preservice elementary teachers’ mobilization and adaptation of science curriculum materials. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47(7), 820-839. doi:10.1002/tea.20379.
 
42.
Gagné, R. M. (Ed.). (1992). Instructional technology: Foundations. (J.F. Zhang, Trans.). Beijing: Educational Sciences Publishing House.
 
43.
Gagné, R. M. (1999). The conditions of learning. (L. S. Pi, Y. X. Wang, Z. G. Xu, X. Q. Yao, W. Zheng, Y. Lin, Trans.). Shanghai: East China Normal University Press.
 
44.
Gagné, R. M., Wager, W. W., Golas, K. C., & Keller, J. M. (2000). Principles of instructional design. (L. S. Pi, W. J. Cai, Y. Lin, M. Sun, W. G. Pang, X.M. Wang, H. Zhu, X. D. Yang, G. S. He, Trans.). Shanghai: East China Normal University Press.
 
45.
Gagné, R. M., Wager, W. W., Golas, K. C., & Keller, J. M. (2005). Principles of instructional design. (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.
 
46.
Gall, D. M., Borg, R. W., & Gall, P. J. (2002). Educational research: An introduction. (6th ed.). (Q. Y., Xu, Q. F., H, J. H., H, ZH. Y., X, Q., X, M. F., G., W., G., W. Y., CH, J. K., CH, R. X., W, X. ZH., SH, W. H., ZH, W. J., D, M. CH., ZH, Trans.). Nanjing: Jiangsu Education Publishing House.
 
47.
Gray, C. M., Dagli, C., Demiral-Uzan, M., Ergulec, F., Tan, V., & Altuwaijri, A. A. (2015). Judgment and instructional design: How ID practitioners work in practice. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 28(3), 25–49. doi:10.1002/piq.21198.
 
48.
Hammerness, K., Darling-Hammond, L., Bransford, J., Berliner, D., Cochran-Smith, M., McDonald, M., & Kenneth, Z. (2005). How teachers learn and develop. In L. Darling-Hammond & J. Bransford (Eds.), Preparing teachers for a changing world: What teachers should learn and be able to do. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
 
49.
Hannah, W. H., Bridge, L. J., & Mu, X.C. (1983). What is the difference between instructional system design and traditional teaching? Theory and Practice of Education, (2), 45-49.
 
50.
Hardre, P. L., & Kollmann, S. (2013). Dynamics of instructional and perceptual factors in instructional design competence development. Journal of Learning Design, 6(1) doi:10.5204/jld. v6i1.106.
 
51.
Hashweh, M. Z. (1987). Effects of subject-matter knowledge in the teaching of biology and physics. Teaching & Teacher Education, 3(2), I09-120. doi:10.1016/0742-051X(87)90012-6.
 
52.
Hatton, N., & Smith, D. (1995). Reflection in teacher education: Towards definition and implementation. Teaching and Teacher Education, 11(1), 33-49. doi:10.1016/0742-051X(94)00012-U.
 
53.
He, P., Liu, X. F., Zheng, CH. L., & Jia, M. Y. (2016). Using rasch measurement to validate an instrument for measuring the quality of classroom teaching in secondary chemistry lessons. Chemistry Education Research & Practice, 17(2), 381-393. doi:10.1039/c6rp00004e.
 
54.
Hevern, K. V. (2009). “Jerome S. Bruner”, Narrative psychology: Internet and resource guide, Le Moyne College. Retrieved on 3 February 2009 from http://web.lemoyne.edu/~hevern....
 
55.
Isman, A., Abanmy, F. A., Hussein, H. B., & Al Saadany, M. A. (2012). Effectiveness of instructional design (ISMAN-2011) in developing the planning teaching skills of teachers college students’ at King Saud University. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 11(1), 71-78.
 
56.
Jefferies, D. J. (1966). Lesson planning and lesson teaching. Titusville, New Jersey: Home and School Press.
 
57.
Jiang, CH-X, & Lin, G. (2007). Research on the “instructional design” training strategy: Investigation and reflection on the current situation of instructional design competence of primary and middle and high school teachers. Modern Educational Technology.
 
58.
John, P. D. (2006). Lesson planning and the preservice science teacher: Re-thinking the dominant model. Curriculum Studies, 38(4), 483-498. doi:10.1080/00220270500363620.
 
59.
Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC). (2014). Effective practice with e-Portfolios: Supporting 21st century learning. Retrieved from https://www.webarchive.org.uk/....
 
60.
Karges-Bone, L. (2000). Lesson planning: long-range and short-range models for grades K-6. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
 
61.
Kemp, J. E. (1971). Instructional design: A plan for unit and course development. Belmont, CA: Fearon Publishers.
 
62.
Kemp, J., Morrison, G., & Ross, S. M. (1998). Designing effective instruction (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Upper Saddle River.
 
63.
Khan, S. (2012). The One-World Schoolhouse: Education Reimagined. New York: Hachette Digital.
 
64.
Klein, J. D. (1991). Preservice teacher use of learning and instructional design principles. Educational Technology Research & Development, 39(3), 83-89. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/30....
 
65.
Klein, J. D., & Jun, S. (2014). Skills for instructional design professionals. Performance Improvement, 53(2), 41-46. doi:10.1002/pfi.21397.
 
66.
Klein, J. D., & Richey, R. C. (2005). Improving individual and organizational performance: The case for international standards. Performance Improvement, 44(10), 9–14. doi:10.1002 /pfi.4140441004.
 
67.
Knight-Bardsley, A., & McNeill, K. L. (2016), Teachers’ pedagogical design capacity for scientific argumentation. Science Education, 100(4), 645-672. doi:10.1002/sce.21222.
 
68.
Koehler, A. A. (2015). Developing preservice teachers’ instructional design skills through case-based instruction: examining the impact of discussion format and use web 2.0 tools (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.buffalo.edu/library....
 
69.
Laplante, B. (1996). Teachers’ beliefs and instructional strategies in science: Pushing analysis further. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-237X(199706)81:3<277::AID-.
 
70.
Liu, C., & Liu, E. S. (2016). An overview of professional preparation for preservice and in-service science teachers. In L. L. Liang, X. F. Liu, & G. W. Fulmer (Eds.). Chinese science education in the 21st Century: Policy, practice, and research in contemporary trends and issues in science education. doi:10.1007/978-94-017-9864-8_17.
 
71.
Liu, E. S. (2003). Biological pedagogy in middle and high school. Beijing: Higher Education Press.
 
72.
Magliaro, S. G., & Shambough, N. (2006), Student models of instructional design. Educational Technology Research and Development, 54(1), 83-106. doi:10.1007/s11423-006-9611-3.
 
73.
Mäntylä, T., & Nousiainen, M. (2014). Consolidating pre-service physics teachers’ subject matter knowledge using didactical reconstructions. Science & Education, 23(8), 1583–1604. doi:10.1007/s11191-013-9657-7.
 
74.
Martin, D. J. (1994). Concept mapping as an AID to lesson planning: A longitudinal study. Journal of Elementary Science Education, 6(2), 11-30. doi:10.1007/BF03173755.
 
75.
Mayfield, M. (2011). Creating training and development programs: Using the ADDIE method. Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, 25(3), 19-22. doi:10.1108/14777281111125363.
 
76.
McClure, J. R., Sonak, B., & Suen S. H. K. (1999). Concept map assessment of classroom learning reliability, validity, and logistical practicality. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 36(4), 475-492.
 
77.
McDonald, M., Kazemi, E., & Kavanagh S. S. (2013). Core practices and pedagogies of teacher education: A call for a common language and collective activity. Journal of Teacher Education, 64(5), 378-386. doi:10.1177/0022487113493807.
 
78.
McElvany, N., Schroeder S., Baumert, J., Schnotz, W., Horz, H., & Source, M. U. (2012). Cognitively demanding learning materials with texts and instructional pictures: Teachers’ diagnostic skills, pedagogical beliefs and motivation. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 27(3), 403-420. doi:10.1007/s10212-011-0078-1.
 
79.
Ministry of Education (MOE) of People’s Republic Country (2011). Teacher’s professional standards. Retrieved from: http://www.moe.gov.cn/publicfi....
 
80.
Mok, M. M. C., Lung, C. L., Cheng, D. P. W., Cheung, R. H. P., & Ng, M. L. (2006). Self-assessment in higher education: Experience in using a metacognitive approach in five case studies. Assessment of Evaluation in Higher Education, 31(4), 415-433. doi:10.1080/02602930600679100.
 
81.
Molinari, L., Mameli, C., & Gnisci, A. (2013). A sequential analysis of classroom discourse in Italian primary schools: The many faces of the IRF pattern. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 414–430. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8279.2012.02071.x.
 
82.
National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS). (2001). National board standards. Retrieved from http://www.nbpts.org/national-....
 
83.
Nativio, A. (2014). Faculty designers and instructional design skills for developing learning opportunities in K-12 environments (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.buffalo.edu/library....
 
84.
Novak, J. D., & Gowin, D. B. (1984). Learning how to learn. New York, NY: Cambridge University doi:10.1017/CBO9781139173469.
 
85.
Page, T. M. (2015). Common pressures, same results? Recent reforms in professional standards and competences in teacher education for secondary teachers in England, France and Germany. Journal of Education for Teaching, 41(2), 180–202. doi:10.1080/02607476.2015.1011900.
 
86.
Park, S., & Oliver, S. J. (2008). Revisiting the conceptualisation of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK): PCK as a conceptual tool to understand teachers as professionals. Research in Science Education, 38(3), 261–284. doi:10.1007/s11165-007-9049-6.
 
87.
Parry, S. B. (1998). Just what is a competency? (And why should you care?). Training, 35(6), 58–64.
 
88.
Paulick, I., Großschedl, J., Harms, U., & Möller, J. (2016). Preservice teachers’ professional knowledge and its relation to academic self-concept. Journal of Teacher Education, 67(3), 173–182. doi:10.1177/0022487116639263.
 
89.
Rasmussen, J. (1983). Skills, rules, and knowledge: Signals, signs, and symbols, and other distinctions in human performance models. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 3, 257-274. doi:10.1109/TSMC.1983.6313160.
 
90.
Remesh, A. (2013). Microteaching, an efficient technique for learning effective teaching. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 18(2), 158-163.
 
91.
Richey, R. C., Fields, D. C., & Foxon, M. (2001). Instructional design competencies: The standards. (3rd ed.). Syracuse, NY: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology. doi:10.1007/BF02504950.
 
92.
Ross, D. K. (2014). Examining preservice science teachers’ developing pedagogical design capacity for planning and supporting task-based classroom discussions (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.buffalo.edu/library....
 
93.
Rouse, W. B., & Morris, N. R. (1986). On looking into the black box: Prospects and limits in the search for mental models. Psychological Bulletin, 100(3), 349-363. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.100.3.349.
 
94.
Ruys, I., Keer, H. V., & Aelterman, A. (2012). Examining preservice teacher competence in lesson planning pertaining to collaborative learning. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 44(3), 349-379. doi:10.1080/00220272.2012.675355.
 
95.
Saaty, T. L., & Vargas L. G. (2001). Models, methods, concepts and applications of the analytic hierarchy process. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-3597-6.
 
96.
Saribas, D., & Ceyhan G. D. (2015). Learning to teach scientific practices: Pedagogical decisions and reflections during a course for preservice science teachers. International Journal of STEM Education. doi:10.1186/s40594-015-0023-y.2(7).
 
97.
Savage, J. (2015). Lesson planning: Key concepts and skills for teachers. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis. doi:10.4324/9781315765181.
 
98.
Scheeler, M. C., McKinnon, K., & Stout, J. (2012). Effects of immediate feedback delivered via webcam and bug-in-ear technology on preservice teacher performance. Teacher Education and Special Education, 35(1), 77–90. doi:10.1177/0888406411401919.
 
99.
Seels, B. B., & Richey, R. C. (1999). Instructional technology: The definition and domains of the field. (M. N. Wu & Y. Q. Liu, Trans.). China: The Open University of China Press.
 
100.
Sheng, Q. L. (2005). Instructional design. Beijing: Higher Education Press.
 
101.
Shi, L.-P., Song, H.-B., Fang, Y., & Yu, X.-T. (2005). Investigation and suggestions on the current situation of biological instructional design in high school. Journal of Shenyang Normal University (Natural Science Eds.).
 
102.
Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4-14. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/11....
 
103.
Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), 1-22.
 
104.
Skowron, J. (2006). Powerful lesson planning: Every teacher’s guide to effective instruction. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
 
105.
Somers, J. L. (2009). Using concept maps to explore preservice teachers’ perceptions of science content knowledge, teaching practices, and reflective processes (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.buffalo.edu/library....
 
106.
Squires, G. (1999). Teaching as a professional discipline. Brighton, UK: Falmer.
 
107.
Stronge, J. (2013). Effective teachers = student achievement: What the research says. New York: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9781315854977.
 
108.
Sugar, W. (2014). Studies of ID practices. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. Retrieved from http://ebookcentral.proquest.c...? docID=1782122:101-118.
 
109.
Tatar, E., Tüysüz, C., Tosun, C., & İlhan, N. (2016). Investigation of factors affecting students’ science achievement according to student science teachers. International Journal of Instruction, 9(2), 153-166. doi:10.12973/iji.2016.9211a.
 
110.
Tuinamuana, K. (2011). Teacher professional standards, accountability, and ideology: Alternative discourses. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 36(12), 72-82.
 
111.
U.S. Department of Education. (2008). The final report of the National Mathematics advisory panel. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education..
 
112.
UNESCO. (2014). UNESCO Education Strategy 2014–2021. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/imag....
 
113.
Wang, Y. C. (2001). Using teaching design principles to optimize physics teaching process. Physics Teacher, (12), 1-3+6.
 
114.
Weber, V. S. (2015). Instructional design for online learning: are preservice teachers prepared? (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.buffalo.edu/library....
 
115.
Wu, M. N. (1994). Instructional Design. Beijing: Higher Education Press.
 
116.
Xia, H. W., & Wang, Z. Y. (2015). Research on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of micro-lecture based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP). International Conference of Education Innovation through Technology. doi:10. 1109/EITT. 2015.22.
 
117.
Yang, F. (2002). The influence of psychological theory on the instructional design of geography teaching. 2002 Academic Annual Conference of the Geographical Society of China, Beijing, China.
 
118.
Zeng, Z. Y. (1985). System design and traditional teaching lesson planning. People’s Education, (3), 51.
 
119.
Zhang, J. H., Jin, S.-H., & Chen, X.-Z. (2004). A study on the characteristics and influential factors of primary school teachers’ class instructional design. Psychological Development and Education, 20(1), 59-63. doi:10.3969/j.issn.1001-4918.2004.01.012.
 
120.
Zhang, R. H. (2009). Theory and practice: Elementary science curriculum and “hands-on” in the perspective of practical curriculum (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.wanfangdata.com.cn/.
 
121.
Zhang, R. H. (2013). Biological pedagogy approaches in middle and high school. Beijing: Beijing Normal University Press.
 
122.
Zhang, W.-C. (2001). Improve the biological experiment educational quality by optimize the instructional design (Master’s dissertation). Fujian Normal University. Retrieved from http://www.cnki.edu.
 
123.
Zhang, Z. X., Zhu, C., & Hu, S. H. (1990). Instructional design: Principles and methods. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.
 
124.
Zheng, C. L., Fu, L. H., He, P., & Zheng, H. (2014). Development of an instrument for assessing the effectiveness of chemistry classroom teaching. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 23(2), 267-279. doi:10.1007/s10956-013-9459-3.
 
eISSN:1305-8223
ISSN:1305-8215