RESEARCH PAPER
Preservice Teachers’ Confidence and Preferred Teaching Strategies using TeachLivE ™ Virtual Learning Environment: A Two-Step Cluster Analysis
Susan Ledger 1
,  
Zehra Ersozlu 2  
,  
 
 
More details
Hide details
1
School of Education, Murdoch University, AUSTRALIA
2
Faculty of Arts and Education, Deakin University, AUSTRALIA
3
School of Education, The University of Newcastle, AUSTRALIA
Online publish date: 2019-01-06
Publish date: 2019-01-06
 
EURASIA J. Math., Sci Tech. Ed 2019;15(3):em1674
KEYWORDS:
TOPICS:
ABSTRACT:
TeachLivETM, a mixed reality learning environment originating from University of Central Florida (2011), has recently been introduced to the Australian preservice teaching context by Murdoch University (2016) and the University of Newcastle (2017). This paper, the first of a program of research mapping the implementation of TeachLivETM within the Australian context, captures preservice teachers’ (PSTs) reflections on their initial interactions with the mixed reality learning environment. The study highlights preferred teaching strategies and teaching confidences during initial interactions in the simulation laboratory and introduces a quality measure within the reflective practice process. A Two-Step Cluster analysis of 322 PSTs was conducted. Results showed a positive impact of reflective practice and revealed that most preservice teachers preferred ‘Questioning’ and ‘Direct Instruction’ methods of delivering micro-teaching lessons. The authors offer a typology of teaching strategies, confidences and a quality measure for teacher educators.
 
REFERENCES (59):
1. Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL). (2017). Global trends in professional learning and performance and development: some implications and ideas for the Australian education system. Melbourne: AITSL. Retrieved from http://www.aitsl.edu.au/profes....
2. Ersozlu, Z, Ledger, S., Ersozlu, A. Mayne, F., & Wildy, H. (2018). Mixed reality learning environments in teacher education: an analysis of TeachLivE ™ research. Manuscript submitted for publication.
3. Tindall-Ford S., Ledger S., Williams J., Ambrosetti A. (2018). Immersion Programs in Australia: Exploring Four Models for Developing ‘Classroom-Ready’ Teachers. In: Kriewaldt J., Ambrosetti A., Rorrison D., Capeness R. (eds) Educating Future Teachers: Innovative Perspectives in Professional Experience. Singapore: Springer.
4. Ledger, S. (2017) Learning to teach with Avatars. Innovative Research Universities: Case study project. http://app.iru.edu.au/national....
5. universitydetails/58be5ae30ba6572a897cd0b1/university-case-study-details/59b8be01cef216353f3e701b.
6. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2....
7. Bennett, B., & Smilanich, P. (1994). Classroom management: Thinking and caring approach. Toronto: Bookation.
8. Berger, J. M. (2010). Measuring Teaching Practices: Does a Self-Report Measure of Instruction Predict Student Achievement? University of Maryland, College Park, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 1489087.
9. Catalano, G. D., & Catalano, K.C. (1999), Transformation: from teacher-centered to student-centered engineering education. Journal of Engineering Education, 88(1) 59-64. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2168....
10. Christensen, R., Knezek, G., Tyler-Wood, T., & Gibson, D. (2011). SimSchool: An online dynamic simulator for enhancing teacher preparation. International Journal of Learning Technology, 6(2), 201–219. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJLT.2....
11. Clinton, J., Anderson, M., Dawson, G., Dawson, A., Bolton, S., Mason, R. (2017). Teacher Effectiveness Systems, Frameworks and Measures: A Review. Department of Education & Training commissioned report. Centre for Program Evaluation: Melbourne Graduate School.
12. Cruikshank, D. R., Bainer, D., & Metcalf, K. (1999). The act of teaching. Toronto: McGraw Hill.
13. Linda Darling-Hammond (2017). Teacher education around the world: What can we learn from international practice? European Journal of Teacher Education, 40(3), 291-309. https://doi.org/10.1080/026197....
14. Darling-Hammond, L. (2010). Evaluating teacher effectiveness: How teacher performance assessments can measure and improve teaching. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress.
15. Darling-Hammond, L., Wei, R. C., & Johnson, C. M. (2009). Teacher Preparation and Teacher Learning: A Changing Policy Landscape. In G. Sykes, B. L. Schneider, and D. N. Plank (Eds.), Handbook of Education Policy Research (pp. 613- 636). New York: American Educational Research Association and Routledge.
16. Darling-Hammond, L., Chung, R., & Frelow, F. (2002). Variation in teacher preparation: how well do different pathways prepare teachers to teach? Journal of Teacher Education, 53(4), 286-302. https://doi.org/10.1177/002248....
17. De Borst, A. W., & de Gelder, B. (2015) Is it the real deal? Perception of virtual characters versus humans: An affective cognitive neuroscience perspective. Retrieved from www.ncbi.nlm.hij.gov.
18. Dieker, L. A., Rodriguez, J., Lingnugaris-Kraft, B., Hynes, M., & Hughes, C. E. (2014). The future of simulated environments in teacher education: Current potential and future possibilities. Teacher Education and Special Education, 37(1), 21-33. https://doi.org/10.1177/088840....
19. Dieker, L. A., Lignugaris-Kraft, B., Hynes, M., & Hughes, C. E. (2016). Mixed reality environments in teacher education: Development and future applications. Online in Real Time: Using WEB 2.0 for Distance Education in Rural Special Education, Eds. B. Collins & B. Ludlow, American Council for Rural Special Educators, Ch. 12, 122-131.
20. Dockterman, D. M. (2017). Discrepancies between Students’ and Teachers’ Ratings of Instructional Practice: A Way to Measure Classroom Intuneness and Evaluate Teaching Quality. University of California, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 10621814.
21. Elford, M. D. (2013). Literacy Instruction for Pre-service Educators in Virtual Learning Environments. In Aleshia Hayes, Stacey Hardin, Lisa Dieker, Mike Hynes, Charles Hughes, and Carrie Straub (Eds.), 1st National TLE TeachLivETM Conference May 23-24, 2013 (pp.16-19). University of Central Florida, Orlando FL.
22. Enicks, A. N. (2012). Using TeachLivETMto Improve Pre-Service Special Education Teacher Practices. Western Michigan University: ProQuest Dissertations Publishing 3536215.
23. Fan, X., Miller, B. C., Park, K., Winward, B. W., Christensen, M., Grotevant, H. D., et al. (2006). An exploratory study about inaccuracy and invalidity in adolescent self-report surveys. Field Methods, 18, 223-244. Retrieved from http://fmx.sagepub.com/content....
24. Foxall, G. (2014). A Primary School Internship Model: Graduate Teacher Performance as Perceived by Employing Principals. Thesis for Master of Education, Faculty of Education and the Arts, Edith Cowan University. (June, 2014).
25. Gregory S. (2011). Collaboration through virtual worlds in Australia and New Zealand higher education institutions. Learning Technology Newsletter, 13(4).
26. Hair Jr, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate Data Analysis. NJ: Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River.
27. Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers. New York & London: Routledge.
28. Hughes, C. E., Nagendran, A., Dieker, L. A., Hynes, M. C., & Welch, G. F. (2015). Applications of Avatar Mediated Interaction to Teaching, Training, Job Skills and Wellness. Brunnett et al. (Eds.): Virtual Realities, LNCS 8844, pp. 133–146. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-....
29. Kaufman, D., & Ireland, A. (2016). Enhancing teacher education with simulations. TechTrends, 60(3), 260–267.
30. Khurshid, F., & Ansari, U. (2012). Effects of innovative teaching strategies on students’ performance. Global Journal of Human Social Science Linguistics and Education, 12(10).
31. Klassen, R. M., Bong, M., Usher, E. L., Chong, W. H., Huan, V. S., Wong, I. Y. F., & Georgiou, T. (2009). Exploring the validity of a teachers’ self-efficacy scale in five countries. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34(1), 67–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedp....
32. Kyriakides, L., Christoforou, C., & Charalambous, C. Y. (2013). What matters for student learning outcomes: a meta-analysis of studies exploring factors of effective teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 36, 143–152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate....
33. Lewis, M. (2016). The Effects of Didactic Instruction on the Rate of Preservice Teachers’ Low- and High-Level Questions. Utah State University, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 10112109.
34. McLean-Davies, L., Dickson, B., Rickart, F., Dinham, S., Conroy, J., & Davis, R. (2015) Teaching as a clinical profession: translational practices in teacher education – an international perspective. Journal of Education for Teaching, 41(5) 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1080/026074....
35. Masters, Y., & Gregory, S. (2011). Second Life and higher education: New opportunities for teaching and learning. In P. Jerry & L. Lindsay (Eds.), Experiential learning in virtual worlds: Opening an undiscovered country (pp. 137-146). Oxford, UK: Inter Disciplinary Press. https://www.interdisciplinaryp....
36. Masters, Y., Gregory, S., Reiners, T., Knox, V., & Dalgarno, B. (2013). VirtualPREX: Developing teaching skills in second life. In C. DeCoursey & S. Garrett (Eds.), Studies in virtual world learning and practice (pp. 69–94). Oxford, UK: Inter Disciplinary Press.
37. Melia, M., & Heckerman, D. (1998). An experimental comparison of several clustering and initialization methods. Microsoft Research Technical Reports, MSR-TR-98-06.
38. Merrill, M. D., Jones, M. K., & Li, Z. (1992). Instructional Transaction Theory: Classes of Transactions. Educational Technology, 32(6), 12-26. Retrieved on March 12, 2008 from http://id2.usu.edu/Papers/TxCl....
39. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
40. Mooi, E., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). A Concise Guide to Market Research. The Process, Data and Methods Using IBM SPSS Statistics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.
41. Nagendran, A., Pillat, R., Kavanaugh, A., Welch, G., & Hughes, C. E. (2013). AMITIES: Avatar-Mediated Interactive Training and Individualized Experiences System. Virtual Reality Software & Technology (VRST) 2013, Singapore, October 6-8, 2013.
42. Pajares, F. (1996). Self-efficacy beliefs in academic settings. Review of Educational Research, 66(4), 543–578. https://doi.org/10.3102/003465....
43. Peterson, M. B. (2014). Pre-Service Special Education Teachers’ Frequency of Opportunities to Respond in the TeachLivETM Virtual Classroom. Texas Woman’s University, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 3623983.
44. Petrina, S. (2007). Instructional Methods and Learning Styles. In S. Petrina (Ed.), Advanced Teaching Methods for the Technology Classroom (pp. 91-122). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-....
45. Peverly, S. (2009). Beyond the monitoring of students’ progress in classrooms: The assessment of students, curricula, and teachers. In S. Rosenfield& V. Berninger (eds.). Implementing evidence-based academic interventions in school settings (pp. 575-600). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
46. Postareff, L., Lindblom-Ylänne, S., & Nevgi, A. (2007). The effect of pedagogical training on teaching in higher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23(2007), 557–571. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ta....
47. Reid, J.-A. (2011) A practice turn for teacher education? Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 39(4), 293-310. https://doi.org/10.1080/135986....
48. Regalla, M., Hutchinson, C., Nutta, J., & Ashtari, N. (2016). Examining the impact of a simulation classroom experience on teacher candidates’ sense of efficacy in communicating with English learners. Jl. of Technology and Teacher Education, 24(3), 337-367. Waynesville, NC USA: Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education. Retrieved on September 25, 2018 from https://www.learntechlib.org/p....
49. Sadler, I. (2009). Emotions in higher education teacher development: The role of confidence upon the approach to teaching. Paper presented at the biannual international meeting for the European Association for Learning and Instruction (EARLI), August 25–29, in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
50. Sander, S. A. (2014). Exploring Preservice Teachers’ Interpretations of Curricular Experiences While Learning to Teach in an Inquiry-Oriented Way: A Phenomenology. Miami University, the Graduate School, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 3670838.
51. Scheuermann, A., & Page, S. (2016). Student’s Perceptions on Teaching. In Taylor Bousfield, Lisa Dieker, Charles Hughes & Mike Hynes (Eds.), 4th Annual TeachLivETM Conference, Virtual Human Interactive Performance (VHIP) June 1-3, 2016 (pp.56-57). University of Central Florida, Orlando FL.
52. Schunk, D. H. (2008). Learning theories: an educational perspective. London, UK: Merrill Prentice Hall.
53. Straub, C., Dieker, L., Hynes, M., & Hughes, C. (2014). Using virtual rehearsal in TLE TeachLivE TM mixed reality classroom simulator to determine the effects on the performance of mathematics teachers, 2014 TeachLivE National Research Project: Year 1 Findings. Orlando, FL: University of Central Florida.
54. Trigwell, K., Prosser, M., & Waterhouse, F. (1999). Relations between teaching approaches to teaching and student’s approaches to learning. Higher Education, 37(1), 57-70. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1003....
55. Tschannen-Moran, M., Hoy, A., & Hoy, W. (1998). Teacher Efficacy: Its Meaning and Measure. Review of Educational Research, 68(2), 202-248. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.l....
56. Tschannen-Moran, M., & Woolfolk-Hoy, A. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 783–805. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-....
57. TLE TeachLivE (2017). TLE TeachLivE. Retrieved from http://TeachLivE.org.
58. Uludag-Bautista, N., & Boone, W. J. (2015). Exploring the Impact of TeachME TM Lab Virtual Classroom Teaching Simulation on Early Childhood Education Majors’ Self- Efficacy Beliefs. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 26, 237–262. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10972....
59. Welsh, K. A., & Schaffer, C. (2017) Developing the effective teaching skills of teacher candidates during early field experiences. The Educational Forum, 81(3), 301-321. https://doi.org/10.1080/001317....
eISSN:1305-8223
ISSN:1305-8215