RESEARCH PAPER
Prevalence of Nomophobia among University Students: A Comparative Study of Pakistani and Turkish Undergraduate Students
 
More details
Hide details
1
Department of Educational Measurement and Evaluation, Siirt University, TURKEY
2
Faculty of Educational Sciences, Ankara University, TURKEY
3
Department of Educational Training, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, PAKISTAN
Online publish date: 2018-01-27
Publish date: 2018-01-27
 
EURASIA J. Math., Sci Tech. Ed 2018;14(4):1519–1532
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
This study focused on to examine prevalence of nomophobia among university students; and the relationship among nomophobia, self-esteem, loneliness and self-happiness with respect to gender and year of study of the university students in Pakistan and Turkey. The study subjects consisted of 729 students 368 (50.5%) of which were from Turkey and 361 (49.5%) from Pakistan. The data were collected by using Nomophobia Scale (NMP-Q), UCLA Loneliness Scale (ULS–8), Self-Happiness Scale, and Rosenberg’ Self-Esteem Scale by the researchers from Pakistan and Turkey respectively. The relationship and the effect of each psychological structure on nomophobia were examined with multiple linear regression model. The difference across the categories of independent variables on each of the dependent variables (loneliness, self-happiness, self-esteem and nomophobia) and on linear combination of dependent variables for each country was examined by multivariate MANOVA. According to multivariate effects results, the main effect of gender on self-esteem and nomophobia was statistically significant which indicates that differences between male and female students with respect to self-esteem and nomophobia were significant. The study demonstrated differences between Turkish and Pakistani students’ score on nomophobia, loneliness and self-happiness were significant, while difference on self-esteem across countries was not statistically significant.
 
REFERENCES (49)
1.
AddictionTips (2015). 25 Surprising Facts about Phone Addiction. Retrieved on 16 June, 2016 from http://www.addictiontips.net/p....
 
2.
Adnan, M., & Gezgin, D. M. (2016). Modern yüzyılın yeni olgusu nomofobi ve üniversite öğrencileri arasında yaygınlık düzeyi (in Turkish). Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi, 49(1), 141-158. https://doi.org/10.1501/Egifak....
 
3.
Akin, A., & Satici, S. A. (2011). Subjective Happiness Scale: A study of validity and reliability. Sakarya University Journal of Education Faculty, 21, 65–77.
 
4.
Altaf, S. (2012). Impact of mobile phone usage on teenage students’ education (Unpublished Master Thesis). Islamabad, International Islamic University.
 
5.
Çakir, O., & Oğuz, E. (2017). The Correlation between High School Students’ Loneliness Levels and Smart Phone Addiction. Mersin Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 13(1), 418-429. https://doi.org/10.17860/mersi....
 
6.
Çelik, S. (2004). The effects of an attachment oriented psychoeducational group training on improving the preoccupied attachment styles of university students (Unpublished Master Thesis). Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey. Available at: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/v....
 
7.
Chóliz, M. (2012). Mobile-phone addiction in adolescence: the test of mobile phone dependence (TMD). Prog Health Sci, 2(1), 33-44.
 
8.
Chóliz, M. M. (2010). Mobile phone addiction in adolescence: evaluation and prevention of mobile addiction in teenagers. Saarbrücken: Lambert Academic Publishing.
 
9.
Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2000). Research Methods in Education. London: Routledge/ Falmer. https://doi.org/10.4324/978020....
 
10.
Cuhadaroğlu, F. (1986). Adölesanlarda benlik saygısı (in Turkish). Hacettepe Üniv. Tıp Fak. Psikiyatri AD., Ankara.
 
11.
Çuhadaroglu, F. (1986). Adolesanlarda benlik saygısı (Unpublished Master Thesis) (in Turkish). Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
 
12.
Dixit, S., Shukla, H., Bhagwat, A., Bindal, A., Goyal, A., Zaidi, A. K., & Shrivastava, A. (2010). A study to evaluate mobile phone dependence among students of a medical college and associated hospital of central India. Indian J Community Med., 35(2), 339–341. https://doi.org/10.4103/0970-0....
 
13.
Gezgin, D. M., & Çakır, Ö. (2016). Analysis of nomofobic behaviors of adolescents regarding various factors. Journal of Human Sciences, 13(2), 2504-2519. https://doi.org/10.14687/jhs.v....
 
14.
Gezgin, D. M., Sumuer, E., Arslan, O., & Yildirim, S. (2017). Nomophobia Prevalence among Pre-service Teachers: A case of Trakya University. Trakya Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 7(1), 86-95.
 
15.
Hays, R. D., & DiMatteo, M. R. (1987). Key issues and suggestions for patient compliance assessment: Sources of information, focus of measures, and nature of response options. Journal of Compliance in Health Care, 2(1), 37-53.
 
16.
Hussain, I. Çakir, O., Ozdemir, B., & Tahirkheli, S. A. (2016). Getting closer being apart: living in the age of information and communication technologies. New Horizons, 11(1), 145-160.
 
17.
Hussain, I. (2005). A study of emerging technologies and their impact on teaching learning process (Unpublished Doctoral Thesis). Islamabad, Allama Iqbal Open University.
 
18.
Hussain, I., & Adeeb, M. A. (2009). Role of Mobile Technology in Promoting Campus-Wide Learning Environment. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology (TOJET), 8(3), 48-57.
 
19.
Karasar, N. (2006). Scientific Research Method. Istanbul: Nobel Publishing Hose.
 
20.
King, A. L. S., Valença, A. M., & Nardi, A. E. (2010). Nomophobia: the mobile phone in panic disorder with agoraphobia: reducing phobias or worsening of dependence? Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology, 23(1), 52-54. https://doi.org/10.1097/WNN.0b....
 
21.
King, A. L. S., Valença, A. M., Silva, A. C. O., Baczynski, T., Carvalho, M. R., & Nardi, A. E. (2013). Nomophobia: Dependency on virtual environments or social phobia? Computers in Human Behavior, 29(1), 140-144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.....
 
22.
King, A. L. S., Valença, A. M., Silva, A. C., Sancassiani, F., Machado, S., & Nardi, A. E. (2014). Nomophobia: impact of cell phone use interfering with symptoms and emotions of individuals with panic disorder compared with a control group. Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health, 10, 28-35. https://doi.org/10.2174/174501....
 
23.
King, A. L. S., Valença, A. M., Silva, A. C., Sancassiani, F., Machado, S., & Nardi, A. E. (2014). “Nomophobia”: Impact of Cell Phone Use Interfering with Symptoms and Emotions of Individuals with Panic Disorder Compared with a Control Group. Clinical practice and epidemiology in mental health: CP & EMH, 10, 28-35. Chicago. https://doi.org/10.2174/174501....
 
24.
Ko, C. H., Yen, J. Y., Chen, C. C., Chen, S. H., & Yen, C. F. (2005). Proposed Diagnostic Criteria of Internet Addiction for Adolescents. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 193(11), 728-733. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.nmd....
 
25.
Krajewska-Kulak, E., Kulak, W., Stryzhak, A., Szpakow, A., Prokopowicz, W., & Marcinkowski, J. T. (2012). Problematic mobile phone using among the Polish and Belarusian university students, a comparative study. Progress in Health Science, 2(1), 45-50.
 
26.
Mail Online. (2008). Nomophobia is the fear of being out of mobile phone contact - and it’s.
 
27.
the plague of our 24/7 age. Retrieved on January 21, 2016 from.
 
29.
Netburn, D. (2012, February 17). Nomophobia –fear of being without your phone -is on the rise. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved on January 11, 2016 from http://articles.latimes.com/20....
 
30.
Nishad, P., & Rana, A. S. (2016). Impact of mobile phone addiction among college going students. Advance Research Journal of Social Science, 7(1), 111-115. https://doi.org/10.15740/HAS/A....
 
31.
Oğuz, E., & Çakir, O. (2014). Relationship between the Levels of Loneliness and.
 
32.
Internet Addiction. Anthropologist, 18(1), 183-189. https://doi.org/10.1080/097200....
 
33.
Oksman, V., & Turtiainen, J. (2004) Mobile communication as a social stage. The meanings of mobile communication g teenagers in Finland. N Med Soc, 6, 319–339. https://doi.org/10.1177/146144....
 
34.
Pallant, J. (2005). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS for windows version 12) (2nd ed.). Sydney: Allen & Unwin.
 
35.
Pavithra, M. B., Madhukumar, S., & Murthy, M. T. S. (2015). A study on nomophobia - mobile phone dependence, among students of a medical college in Bangalore. National Journal of Community Medicine, 6(3), 340-344.
 
36.
Polit, D., Hungler, B., & Beck, C. T. (2001). Essentials of nursing research: Methods, Appraisal and Utilization (5th Ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
 
37.
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. https://doi.org/10.1515/978140....
 
38.
SecurEnvoy. (2012). Newsroom: 66% of the population suffers from Nomophobia the fear of being without their phone. Retrieved on June 16, 2016 from.
 
40.
Sharma, M. K., Benegal, V., Girish, N., & Thennarasu, K. (2013). Behavioral addiction in the community: an exploration. India, National Institute of Mental health & Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore.
 
41.
Sharma, N., Sharma, P., Sharma, N., & Wavare, R. R. (2015). Rising concern of nomophobia amongst Indian medical students. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 3(3), 705-707. https://doi.org/10.5455/232060....
 
42.
Shin, L. Y. (2014). A comparative study of mobile internet usage between the U.S. and Korea. Journal of European Psychology Students, 5(3), 46-55. https://doi.org/10.5334/jeps.c....
 
43.
Tavolacci, M. P., Meyrignac, G., Richard, L., Dechelotte, P., & Ladner, J. (2015). Problematic use of mobile phone and nomophobia among French college students. The European Journal of Public Health, 25(3), 206-212. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub....
 
44.
Toda, M., Monden, K., Kubo, K., & Morimoto, K. (2006) Mobile phone dependence and health-related life-style of university students. Soc Behav Pers, 34, 1277–1284. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.20....
 
45.
Uysal, S., Özen, H., & Madenoğlu, C. (2016). Social phobia in higher education: the influence of nomophobia on social phobia. The Global Elearning Journal, 5(2), 1-8.
 
46.
Yildirim, C. (2014). Exploring the dimensions of nomophobia: developing and validating a questionnaire using mixed methods research (Unpublished Master Thesis). Ames, Iowa State University.
 
47.
Yildirim, C., & Correia, A.-P. (2015). Exploring the dimensions of nomophobia: Development and validation of a self-reported questionnaire. Computers in Human Behavior, 49, 130–137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.....
 
48.
Yildirim, C., Sumuer, E., Adnan, M., & Yildirim, S. (2016). A growing fear Prevalence of nomophobia among Turkish college students. Information Development, 32(5), 1322-1331. https://doi.org/10.1177/026666....
 
49.
Yıldız, M. A., & Duy, B. (2014). Adaptation of the short-form of the UCLA Loneliness Scale (ULS-8) to Turkish for the Adolescents. Düşünen Adam The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 27,194-203. https://doi.org/10.5350/DAJPN2....
 
eISSN:1305-8223
ISSN:1305-8215