SPECIAL ISSUE PAPER
Pro-Environmental Awareness and Behaviors on Campus: Evidence from Tianjin, China
Liping Fu 1
,  
Ye Zhang 1
,  
Xiong Xiong 1, 2
,  
Yin Bai 1  
 
 
More details
Hide details
1
College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, Tianjin PR CHINA
2
China Center for Social Computing and Analytics, Tianjin University, Tianjin, PR CHINA
Online publish date: 2017-11-15
Publish date: 2017-11-15
 
EURASIA J. Math., Sci Tech. Ed 2018;14(1):427–445
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
This article belongs to the special issue "Problems of Application Analysis in Knowledge Management and Science-Mathematics-Education".
ABSTRACT
China has promoted green campuses for decades. To better explore the current extent of pro-environmental awareness and behaviors of types of stakeholders (student, faculty members, and administrators) on campus, this study investigated the relationship between pro-environmental awareness and pro-environmental behaviors along with the influences of motivators, barriers, and culture (face (reputation) and group pressure). A questionnaire survey was conducted with a sample of the three types of stakeholders at Tianjin University, one of the largest academic institutions and the earliest to implement green campus development initiatives in China. Structural equation modeling tested a causal model of awareness, behaviors, and other explanatory variables. The results found that pro-environmental behaviors were more likely than awareness and the respondents engaged in private more than in public pro-environmental behaviors. Chinese social and cultural factors influenced pro-environmental behavior, particularly among the administrators, which informs our understanding of the reasons for the awareness-behavior gap. China’s universities focus on eco-technology and energy management rather than on dissemination and publicity. The results suggest that advancing a pro-environmental cultural atmosphere and a consistent sustainability policy might significantly foster pro-environmental behaviors on university campuses.
 
REFERENCES (89)
1.
Abdul-Wahab, S. A. (2010). Level of environmental awareness towards depletion of the ozone layer among distributors and consumers in the solvent sector: a case study from Oman. Climatic Change, 103(3–4), 503–517.
 
2.
Abrahamse, W., Steg, L., Vlek, C., & Rothengatter, T. (2007). The effect of tailored information, goal setting, and tailored feedback on household energy use, energy-related behaviors, and behavioral antecedents. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 27(4), 265–276.
 
3.
Ajzen, I. (1985). From Intentions to Actions: A Theory of Planned Behavior. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
 
4.
Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211.
 
5.
Anand, C. K., Bisaillon, V., Webster, A., & Amor, B. (2015). Integration of sustainable development in higher education: a regional initiative in Quebec (Canada). Journal of Cleaner Production, 108, 916–923.
 
6.
Arbuckle, J. L. (2010). Amos19.0. Chicago, IL: Amos Development Corporation.
 
7.
Axsen, J., & Kurani, K. S. (2012). Social influence, consumer behavior, and low-carbon energy transitions. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 37, 311–340.
 
8.
Azucena Vicente-Molina, M., Fernandez-Sainz, A., & Izagirre-Olaizola, J. (2013). Environmental knowledge and other variables affecting pro-environmental behaviour: comparison of university students from emerging and advanced countries. J. Clean. Prod., 61, 130–138.
 
9.
Baas, L., & Hjelm, O. (2015). Support your future today: enhancing sustainable transitions by experimenting at academic conferences. J. Clean. Prod., 98, 1–7.
 
10.
Bai, Y., & Liu, Y. (2013). An exploration of residents’ low-carbon awareness and behavior in Tianjin, China. Energy Policy, 61, 1261–1270.
 
11.
Bamberg, S. (2003). How does environmental concern influence specific environmentally related behaviors? A new answer to an old question. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23(1), 21–32.
 
12.
Barber, N., Taylor, C., & Strick, S. (2009). Wine consumers’ environmental knowledge and attitudes: influence on willingness to purchase. Int. J. Wine Res., 1, 59–72.
 
13.
Barr, S. (2003). Strategies for sustainability: citizens and responsible environmental behaviour. Area, 35(3), 227–240.
 
14.
Barr, S. (2007). Factors influencing environmental attitudes and behaviors: a UK case study of household waste management. Environment and Behavior, 39(4), 435–473.
 
15.
Bayulken, B., & Huisingh, D. (2015). Perceived ‘Quality of Life’ in eco-developments and in conventional residential settings: an explorative study. Journal of Cleaner Production, 98, 253–262.
 
16.
Bina, O., Balula, L., Varanda, M., & Fokdal, J. (2016). Urban studies and the challenge of embedding sustainability: a review of international master programmes. J. Clean. Prod., 137, 330–346.
 
17.
Bohner, G., & Dickel, N. (2011). Attitudes and attitude change. Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 391–417.
 
18.
Brown, P., & Levinson, S. C. (1987). Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge University Press.
 
19.
Byrne, B. M. (2001). Structural equation modeling with AMOS, EQS, and LISREL: comparative approaches to testing for the factorial validity of a measuring instrument. International Journal of Testing, 1(1), 55–86.
 
20.
Carey, P. (2013). Student engagement: stakeholder perspectives on course representation in university governance. Studies in Higher Education, 38(9), 1290–1304.
 
21.
Chan, D. Y.-L., Yang, K.-H., Lee, J.-D., & Hong, G.-B. (2010). The case study of furnace use and energy conservation in iron and steel industry. Energy, 35(4), 1665–1670.
 
22.
Chan, R. Y. K. (2001). Determinants of Chinese consumers’ green purchase behavior. Psychology & Marketing, 18(4), 389–413.
 
23.
China Green University Network (CGUN) (2013). Introduction of China Green University Network. www.cgun.org/en.
 
24.
Churchill, Jr., G. A. (1979). A paradigm for developing better measures of marketing constructs. Journal of Marketing Research, 16, 64–73.
 
25.
Clark, C. F., Kotchen, M. J., & Moore, M. R. (2003). Internal and external influences on pro-environmental behavior: participation in a green electricity program. J. Environ. Psychol., 23(3), 237–246.
 
26.
Clauss-Ehlers, C. S., & Parham, W. D. (2014). Landscape of diversity in higher education: linking demographic shifts to contemporary university and college counseling center practices. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 42(2), 69–76.
 
27.
Cotton, D., Shiel, C., & Paco, A. (2016). Energy saving on campus: a comparison of students’ attitudes and reported behaviours in the UK and Portugal. J. Clean. Prod., 129, 586–595.
 
28.
Creech, H., McDonald, C., & Kahlke, P. M. H. (2009). Measuring Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Towards Sustainable Development: Two Exploratory Studies. Winnipeg CA: International Institute for Sustainable Development.
 
29.
Daae, J., & Boks, C. (2015). A classification of user research methods for design for sustainable behaviour. J. Clean. Prod., 106, 680–689.
 
30.
Dagiliute, R., & Liobikiene, G. (2015). University contributions to environmental sustainability: challenges and opportunities from the Lithuanian case. J. Clean. Prod., 108, 891–899.
 
31.
Dunlap, R. E., VanLiere, K. D., Mertig, A. G., & Jones, R. E. (2000). New trends in measuring environmental attitudes: measuring endorsement of the new ecological paradigm: a revised NEP scale. Journal of Social Issues, 56, 425–442.
 
32.
Emelyanova, N., & Voronina, E. (2014). Introducing a Learning Management System at a Russian University: Students’ and Teachers’ Perceptions. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 15(1).
 
33.
Fernandez-Manzanal, R., Serra, L. M., Morales, M. J., Carrasquer, J., Rodriguez-Barreiro, L. M., del Valle, J., & Murillo, M. B. (2015). Environmental behaviours in initial professional development and their relationship with university education. J. Clean. Prod., 108, 830-840.
 
34.
Filho, W. L., Shiel, C., & Paco, A. (2016). Implementing and operationalising integrative approaches to sustainability in higher education: the role of project-oriented learning. J. Clean. Prod., 133, 126-135.
 
35.
Fonseca, A., Macdonald, A., Dandy, E., & Valenti, P. (2011). The state of sustainability reporting at Canadian universities. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 12(1), 22-40.
 
36.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
 
37.
Hu, X., & Wang, J. (2014). The impact mechanism between the consciousness of face and public resource-saving behavior: an exploration of the theoretical model. Journal of Chongqing University of Arts and Sciences (Social Sciences Edition), 33(3), 85–90.
 
38.
Huge, J., Block, T., Waas, T., Wright, T., & Dahdouh-Guebas, F. (2016). How to walk the talk? developing actions for sustainability in academic research. J. Clean. Prod., 137, 83–92.
 
39.
Isljamovic, S., Petrovic, N., & Jeremic, V. (2011). Technology enhanced learning as a key component of increased environmental awareness amongst students from the University of Belgrade. Technics Technologies Education Management-Item, 6(4), 1175–1181.
 
40.
Jager, W. (2006). Stimulating the diffusion of photovoltaic systems: a behavioural perspective. Energy Policy, 34(14), 1935–1943.
 
41.
Kaplowitz, M. D., Thorp, L., Coleman, K., & Kwame Yeboah, F. (2012). Energy conservation attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors in science laboratories. Energy Policy, 50, 581–591.
 
42.
Koger, S. M., & Winter, D. N. (2011). The Psychology of Environmental Problems: Psychology for Sustainability. Psychology Press.
 
43.
Kollmus, A., & Agyeman, J. (2002). Mind the gap: why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro-environmental behavior? Environmental Education Research, 8(3), 239–260.
 
44.
Lin, P.-C., & Huang, Y.-H. (2012). The influence factors on choice behavior regarding green products based on the theory of consumption values. J. Clean. Prod., 22, 11–18.
 
45.
Lindenberg, S., & Steg, L. (2007). Normative, gain and hedonic goal frames guiding environmental behavior. Journal of Social Issues, 63(1), 117–137.
 
46.
Lozano, R. (2006). Incorporation and institutionalization of SD into universities: breaking through barriers to change. J. Clean. Prod., 14(9–11), 787–796.
 
47.
Lozano, R. (2010). Diffusion of sustainable development in universities’ curricula: an empirical example from Cardiff University. J. Clean. Prod., 18(7), 637–644.
 
48.
Lukman, R., Lozano, R., Vamberger, T., & Krajnc, M. (2013). Addressing the attitudinal gap towards improving the environment: a case study from a primary school in Slovenia. J. Clean. Prod., 48, 93–100.
 
49.
Maniatis, P. (2016). Investigating factors influencing consumer decision-making while choosing green products. J. Clean. Prod., 132, 215–228.
 
50.
Marshall, R., Akoorie, M., Hamann, R., & Sinha, P. (2010). Environmental practices in the wine industry: an empirical application of the theory of reasoned action and stakeholder theory in the United States and New Zealand. Journal of World Business, 45(4), 405–414.
 
51.
Martinsson, J., Lundqvist, L. J., & Sundstrom, A. (2011). Energy saving in Swedish households: the (relative) importance of environmental attitudes. Energy Policy, 39(9), 5182–5191.
 
52.
Mu, R. M., Liu, P., Song, Y. T., Cao, D. Y., Zhan, L. W., Zuo, J., & Yuan, X. L. (2015). Theory and practice of sustainability in higher education: from the perspective of Green University. Proceedings of the 2015 Asia-Pacific Energy Equipment Engineering Research Conference, 9, 484–487.
 
53.
Nunnally, J. C. (2010). Psychometric Theory. Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
 
54.
Oguz, D., Cakci, I., & Kavas, S. (2010). Environmental awareness of university students in Ankara, Turkey. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 5(19), 2629–2636.
 
55.
Olson, J. M., & Zanna, M.P. (1993). Attitudes and attitude change. Annual Review of Psychology, 44, 117–154.
 
56.
Owens, S., & Driffill, L. (2008). How to change attitudes and behaviours in the context of energy. Energy Policy, 36, 4412–4418.
 
57.
Ozaki, R., & Sevastyanova, K. (2011). Going hybrid: an analysis of consumer purchase motivations. Energy Policy, 39(5), 2217–2227.
 
58.
Paco, A., & Lavrador, T. (2017). Environmental knowledge and attitudes and behaviours towards energy consumption. Journal of Environmental Management, 197, 384–392.
 
59.
Pappas, E., Pappas, J., & Sweeney, D. (2015). Walking the walk: conceptual foundations of the Sustainable Personality. J. Clean. Prod., 86, 323–334.
 
60.
Polonsky, M. J., Vocino, A., Grau, S. L., Garma, R., & Ferdous, A. S. (2012). The impact of general and carbon related environmental knowledge on attitudes and behaviour of US consumers. J. Mark. Manage., 28, 238–263.
 
61.
Raymond, C. M., Fazey, I., Reed, M. S., Stringer, L. C., Robinson, G. M., & Evely, A. C. (2010). Integrating local and scientific knowledge for environmental management. Journal of Environmental Management, 91(8), 1766–1777.
 
62.
Rodriguez-Barreiro, L. M., Fernandez-Manzanal, R., Serra, L. M., Carrasquer, J., Murillo, M. B., Morales, M. J., & del Valle, J. (2013). Approach to a causal model between attitudes and environmental behaviour: a graduate case study. J. Clean. Prod., 48, 116–125.
 
63.
Rokeach, M. (1973). The Nature of Human Values. New York: Free Press.
 
64.
Sabbaghia, M., Behdadb, S., & Zhuanga, J. (2016). Managing consumer behavior toward on-time return of the waste electrical and electronic equipment: a game theoretic approach. Int. J. Prod. Econ., 182, 545–563.
 
65.
Schahn, J., & Holzer, E. (1990). Studies of individual environmental concern: the role of knowledge, gender, and background variables. Environment and Behavior, 22(6), 767–786.
 
66.
Schifter, D. E., & Ajzen, I. (1985). Intention, perceived control, and weight loss: an application of the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49(3), 843–851.
 
67.
Sidiras, D. K., & Koukios, E. G. (2004). Solar systems diffusion in local markets. Energy Policy, 32(18), 2007–2018.
 
68.
Spencer-Oatey, H. (2002). Managing rapport in talk: using rapport sensitive incidents to explore the motivational concerns underlying the management of relations. Journal of Pragmatics, 34(5), 529–545.
 
69.
Steg, L. (2008). Promoting household energy conservation. Energy Policy, 36(12), 4449–4453.
 
70.
Steg, L., & Vlek, C. (2009). Encouraging pro-environmental behaviour: an integrative review and research agenda. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 29(3), 309–317.
 
71.
Stern, P. (2000). Toward a coherent theory of environmentally significant behavior. Journal of Social Issues, 56(3), 407–424.
 
72.
Sun, M., Yang, X., Huisingh, D., Wang, R., & Wang, Y. (2015). Consumer behavior and perspectives concerning spent household battery collection and recycling in China: a case study. J. Clean. Prod., 107, 775–785.
 
73.
Svanström, M., Lozano-García, F. J., & Rowe, D. (2008). Learning outcomes for sustainable development in higher education. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 9(3), 339–351.
 
74.
Tan, H. W., Chen, S. Q., Shi, Q., & Wang, L. L. (2014). Development of green campus in China. J. Clean. Prod., 64, 646–653.
 
75.
Tarah, S. A. W. (2007). Developing research priorities with a cohort of higher education for sustainability experts. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 8(1), 34–43.
 
76.
Taufiquea, K., Siwarb, C., Chamhuric, N., & Hasan, S. (2016). Integrating general environmental knowledge and eco-label knowledge in understanding ecologically conscious consumer behaviour. Procedia Econ. Finance, 37, 39–45.
 
77.
Thompson, S. C. G., & Barton, M. A. (1994). Ecocentric and anthropocentric attitudes toward the environment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 14(2), 149–157.
 
78.
Turaga, R. M. R., Howarth, R. B., & Borsuk, M. E. (2010). Pro-environmental behavior. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1185(1), 211–224.
 
79.
Van Raaij, W. F., & Verhallen, T. M. M. (1983). A behavioral model of residential energy use. Journal of Economic Psychology, 3(1), 39–63.
 
80.
Wang, Y., Shi, H., Sun, M., Huisingh, D., Hansson, L., & Wang, R. (2013). Moving towards an ecologically sound society? starting from green universities and environmental higher education. J. Clean. Prod., 61, 1–5.
 
81.
Wang, Y., & Yang, Z. (2005). A literature review of face. Psychological Science, 28(2), 398–440.
 
82.
Wright, H. A., Ironside, J. E., & Gwynn-Jones, D. (2008). The current state of sustainability in bioscience laboratories: a statistical examination of a UK tertiary institute. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 9(3), 282–294.
 
83.
Wright, T. (2010). University presidents’ conceptualizations of sustainability in higher education. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 11(1), 61–73.
 
84.
Yu, W. (2009). Formation mechanism of green consumption behavior analysis based on the perspective of population pressure and environmental cognition. Consumer Economics, 4, 75–77.
 
85.
Yuan, X., Zuo, J., & Huisingh, D. (2013). Green universities in China: what matters? J. Clean. Prod., 61, 36–45.
 
86.
Zhao, W. X., & Zou, Y. H. (2015). Green university initiatives in China: a case of Tsinghua University. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 16(4), 491–506.
 
87.
Zhu, Q., Li, Y., Geng, Y., & Qi, Y. (2013). Green food consumption intention, behaviors and influencing factors among Chinese consumers. Food Quality and Preference, 28(1), 279–286.
 
88.
Zsoka, A. N. (2008). Consistency and “awareness gaps” in the environmental behaviour of Hungarian companies. J. Clean. Prod., 16(3), 322–329.
 
89.
Zsoka, A., Szerenyi, Z. M., Szechy, A., & Kocsis, T. (2013). Greening due to environmental education? environmental knowledge, attitudes, consumer behavior and everyday pro-environmental activities of Hungarian high school and university students. J. Clean. Prod., 48, 126–138.
 
eISSN:1305-8223
ISSN:1305-8215