Training Practices of Self-efficacy on Critical Thinking Skills and Literacy: Importance-Performance Matrix Analysis
Shinyi Lin 1  
More details
Hide details
National Taichung University of Education, TAIWAN
Asia University, TAIWAN
Online publication date: 2019-09-07
Publication date: 2019-09-07
EURASIA J. Math., Sci Tech. Ed 2020;16(1):em1794
This study, which is rooted in design thinking, explores how participants in both academia and industry settings vary in their perceived self-efficacy in critical thinking after using online training units with information and communication technologies (ICTs). Based on the quasi-experimental pre-post research design with stratified sampling, the researchers completed an empirical validation administered to 739 research participants with a valid return of 75%. Perceived self-efficacy increases critical thinking skills. Therefore, the research indicates that enactive mastery of domain knowledge is directly influenced by vicarious modeling and sense of arousal. In addition, it is indirectly influenced by verbal persuasion. The three determinants tend to be equally performed. However, vicarious modeling is of high importance compared to verbal persuasion and sense of arousal. Related to the training practices and effectiveness assessment, the research finding is aligned to the issues of training transfer and talent development in bridging academic candidates to industry professionals.
Bandura, A. (1982). The assessment and predictive generality of self-percepts of efficacy. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 13(3), 195-199.
Bandura, A. (1989). Regulation of cognitive processes through perceived self-efficacy. Developmental Psychology, 25(5), 729-735.
Bandura, A. (Ed.) (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Brown, T. (2009). Change by design: How design thinking transforms organizations and inspires innovation. New York: Harper-Collins.
Cargas, S., Williams, S., & Rosenberg, M. (2017). An approach to teaching critical thinking across disciplines using performance tasks with a common rubric. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 26(Supplement C), 24-37.
Chang, S.-H., Wang, C.-L., & Lee, J.-C. (2016). Do award-winning experiences benefit students’ creative self-efficacy and creativity? The moderated mediation effects of perceived school support for creativity. Learning and Individual Differences, 51, 291-298.
Chartrand, J., Ishikawa, H., & Flander, S. (2013). Critical Thinking Means Business: Learn to Apply and Develop the NEW #1 Workplace Skill. Retrieved from
Chiang, A. C.-C., & Fung, I. P.-W. (2004). Redesigning chat forum for critical thinking in a problem-based learning environment. The Internet and Higher Education, 7(4), 311-328.
Dwyer, C. P., Hogan, M. J., & Stewart, I. (2014). An integrated critical thinking framework for the 21st century. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 12, 43-52.
Egri, C. P. (2014). Introduction: Design Thinking for Learning. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 13(4), 640.
Facione, P. A. (1990). Critical Thinking: A Statement of Expert Consensus for Purposes of Educational Assessment and Instruction: The Delphi Report. Retrieved from Millbrae, CA.
Fell, E. V., & Lukianova, N. A. (2015). British universities: International students’ alleged lack of critical thinking. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 215, 2-8.
Florea, N. M., & Hurjui, E. (2015). Critical thinking in elementary school children. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 180, 565-572.
Glen, R., Suciu, C., & Baughn, C. (2014). The need for design thinking in business schools. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 13(4), 653-667.
Gloudemans, H. A., Schalk, R. M. J. D., & Reynaert, W. (2013). The relationship between critical thinking skills and self-efficacy beliefs in mental health nurses. Nurse Education Today, 33(3), 275-280.
González-González, I., Gallardo-Gallardo, E., & Jiménez-Zarco, A. I. (2014). Using films to develop the critical thinking competence of the students at the Open University of Catalonia (UOC): Testing an audiovisual case methodology in a distance e-learning environment. Computers in Human Behavior, 30(0), 739-744.
Grossman, R., Salas, E., Pavlas, D., & Rosen, M. A. (2013). Using instructional features to enhance demonstration-based training in management education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 12(2), 219-243.
Haghparast, M., Nasaruddin, F. H., & Abdullah, N. (2014). Cultivating critical thinking through e-learning environment and tools: A review. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 129, 527-535.
Hair, J. F. (2013). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM): SAGE Publications.
Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM).
Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a Silver Bullet. Journal of Marketing Theory & Practice, 19(2), 139-152.
Hair, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., & Mena, J. A. (2012). An assessment of the use of partial least squares structural equation modeling in marketing research. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40(3), 414-433.
Henseler, J., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115-135.
Hsia, L.-H., Huang, I., & Hwang, G.-J. (2016). Effects of different online peer-feedback approaches on students’ performance skills, motivation and self-efficacy in a dance course. Computers & Education, 96, 55-71.
Huq, A., Huq, A., Gilbert, D., & Gilbert, D. (2017). All the world’sa stage: transforming entrepreneurship education through design thinking. Education+ Training, 59(2), 155-170.
Katsioloudes, M. I., & Tischio, V. (2001). Critical thinking in nonprofit management education. Human Systems Management, 20(1), 47-57.
Koh, J. H. L., Chai, C. S., Benjamin, W., & Hong, H.-Y. (2015). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) and Design Thinking: A Framework to Support ICT Lesson Design for 21st Century Learning. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 24(3), 535-543.
Kokotovich, V. (2008). Problem analysis and thinking tools: an empirical study of non-hierarchical mind mapping. Design Studies, 29(1), 49-69.
Popil, I. (2011). Promotion of critical thinking by using case studies as teaching method. Nurse Education Today, 31(2), 204-207.
Prior, D. D., Mazanov, J., Meacheam, D., Heaslip, G., & Hanson, J. (2016). Attitude, digital literacy and self efficacy: Flow-on effects for online learning behavior. The Internet and Higher Education, 29, 91-97.
Rauth, I., Köppen, E., Jobst, B., & Meinel, C. (2010). Design thinking: an educational model towards creative confidence. Paper presented at the DS 66-2: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Design Creativity (ICDC 2010).
Richardson, J. C., & Ice, P. (2010). Investigating students’ level of critical thinking across instructional strategies in online discussions. The Internet and Higher Education, 13(1–2), 52-59.
Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2016). Gain more insight from your PLS-SEM results: The importance-performance map analysis. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 116(9), 1865-1886.
Rodzalan, S. A., & Saat, M. M. (2015). The perception of critical thinking and problem solving skill among Malaysian undergraduate students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 172, 725-732.
Rohatgi, A., Scherer, R., & Hatlevik, O. E. (2016). The role of ICT self-efficacy for students’ ICT use and their achievement in a computer and information literacy test. Computers & Education, 102, 103-116.
Saadé, R. G., Morin, D., & Thomas, J. D. E. (2012). Critical thinking in E-learning environments. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(5), 1608-1617.
Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models. Sociological Methodology, 13, 290-312.
Soper, D. S. (2016). Sobel Test Calculator for the Significance of Mediation. Retrieved from
TalentLens, P. (2014). Watson-Glaser™ Critical Thinking Appraisal. Retrieved from
The California Academic Press. (2013). California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). Retrieved from http://www.insightassessment.c....
Vinzi, V. E., Chin, W. W., Henseler, J., & Wang, H. (2010). Handbook of Partial Least Squares: Concepts, Methods and Applications. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.
Walters, D., Greenwood, A., & Ritchie, R. (2006). Work-based learning: Effectiveness in information systems training and development. Higher Education Quarterly, 60(1), 91-107.
Yeh, Y.-c. (2012). A co-creation blended KM model for cultivating critical-thinking skills. Computers & Education, 59(4), 1317-1327.
Yu-Hui, T., Yu-Lung, W., & Chang, H.-Y. (2008). practical computer adaptive testing model for small scale scenarios. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 11(3), 259-274.