Adaptation of the sources of the mathematics self-efficacy scale for Oman: A validation study
Khalid Saif Salim Al Umairi 1 * , Umi Kalsum Mohd Salleh 1 , Hutkemri Zulnaidi 2
More Detail
1 Department of Curriculum and Instructional Technology, Faculty of Education, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA2 Department of Mathematics and Science Education, Faculty of Education, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA* Corresponding Author


The current study aims to adapt sources of middle school mathematics scale developed by Usher and Pajares (2009) to the Omani context. The study sample consisted of 700 students (379 girls and 321 boys) from the eighth grade in middle schools in Oman. The results of this study showed that sources of middle school mathematics self-efficacy scale (SMES) (adaption) resemble the original version of which developed by Usher and Pajares (2009). Confirmatory factor analysis showed good fit indices, with χ2=767.8, df=224, comparative fit index=.928, standardized root mean square residual=.0478, and root mean square error approximation=.059. The scale also displayed a robust internal consistency–Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was above 0.8 and for its subscales as well. The indices of convergent and divergent validity for this scale were all significant (p<0.001). Therefore, SMES is psychometrically sound and can be applied to the Omani context.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Article Type: Research Article

EURASIA J Math Sci Tech Ed, Volume 19, Issue 9, September 2023, Article No: em2321

Publication date: 01 Sep 2023

Online publication date: 14 Jul 2023

Article Views: 1478

Article Downloads: 659

Open Access References How to cite this article