Adaptive learning for individual learners has recently become popular in education. This study aims to fill the void in the existing literature by building an adaptive e-learning system with self-assessment rubrics based on the dynamic scaffolding theory in response to different student needs. Meanwhile, the purpose of this study is to explore the effectiveness of using adaptive e-learning with dynamic scaffoldings and rubrics in fostering students’ learning outcomes. An experimental design was conducted to evaluate learning effectiveness and learning satisfaction in the Excel (spreadsheet) of the course for using the developed adaptive e-learning system. Sixty undergraduate students from a technology university in central Taiwan participated in this experimental study and executed a pretest and a posttest. Research results revealed that the developed adaptive e-learning system can effectively support students with personalized learning materials and successfully helps students acquired knowledge and develop cognitive abilities. The results recommend that teachers could employ rubrics as a self-assessment tool for supporting students with dynamic scaffoldings to conduct a learner-centered e-learning environment. Additionally, the lack of generalizability is clearly a limitation of the present data due to a few participants. Finally, future research direction of this study was also discussed.