The relevance of the research: For the fourth decade, Russian education system has undergone constant changes at various levels: from preschool to higher education. Accordingly, the process of teacher’s professional training is being modernized, including state educational standards, which assume significant strengthening of the role of practical training. In this regard, it becomes urgent to find a balance between the theoretical and practical training of the future mathematics teacher. The purpose of the study is to identify the optimal balance between theoretical and practical teaching in the process of professional training of the future mathematics teacher. The research was carried out based on the regularities of the methodological problems of pedagogical forecasting, including the expert evaluation method, historical analysis, practical methods (questionnaire surveying).