This study integrates STEM education and imaginative education with project-based learning, and develops a set of “iSTEM (imagination, science, technology, engineering, mathematics) learning” methods in order to construct iSTEM ability indexes for vocational high school students and to explore the application and effectiveness of the learning model. This study employed the fuzzy Delphi method, a questionnaire survey, content analysis and focus group interviews and included 12 experts and 39 vocational high school students as the subjects. The important results obtained in this study are as follows: 20 iSTEM imagination ability indexes and 50 STEM integrated thinking and application ability indexes are constructed; a student-centered iSTEM learning model is developed; iSTEM learning activities can enhance the learning and integration of STEM knowledge; the iSTEM learning model produces a positive effect on integrated STEM thinking and the imagination ability of vocational high school students. Finally, this study puts forward recommendations for improving STEM education practices, teaching strategy design and high-level STEM ability assessment in the future.
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