This study aimed to explore Ethiopian middle school physics teachers’ content knowledge (CK) and their implementation of Dialogic teaching (DT). A qualitative method, case study design, and purposive and convenient sampling employed in the study. Data collected using Classroom observation and Questionnaire from nine physics teachers. The comparative analysis used to compare teachers’ implementation of DT. The results have indicated that the teachers’ CK was limited. Every teacher has had misconceptions, and a lack of procedural knowledge in physics contents and some teachers’ misconceptions were severe. None of the teachers fully implement dialogic teaching in their class. However, teachers who have training on DT and a higher level of CK relatively demonstrated DT better than teachers who have no training and have lower CK, respectively. The teacher education program recommended choosing a concurrent teacher education model, incorporating middle school physics in their curriculum for pre-service teachers, and making pre-service teachers practice dialogic teaching.