Early learning, tutoring, and STEM motivation: Impact on Korean students’ mathematics achievement
Jung Han 1 , Hyeree Cho 2 , Sol Lee 2 , Ammi Chang 2 , Hyunuk Park 2 , Yunjin Lim 3 *
More Detail
1 Department of Technology, Leadership, Innovation, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA2 Department of Educational Studies, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA3 Korea Institute for Curriculum and Evaluation, Chungbuk, SOUTH KOREA* Corresponding Author


The impact of motivational beliefs, such as self-efficacy and intrinsic value, on academic achievement has been well documented in previous studies. In the current study, we extend the previous literature by taking individual learning experiences, such as early learning and tutoring experiences, into account. This allows us to gain a comprehensive understanding of the association between academic motivation and achievement. We analyzed a total of 3,614 Korean student data from the 2019 TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) dataset to examine the mediating role of mathematics motivation. Our path analysis reveals that mathematics self-efficacy mediates the relationship between tutoring experiences and mathematics achievement. The results of this study provide implications for supporting students’ mathematics motivation, which can serve as a gateway to enhance engagement and perseverance in STEM fields.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Article Type: Research Article

EURASIA J Math Sci Tech Ed, Volume 20, Issue 6, June 2024, Article No: em2460


Publication date: 01 Jun 2024

Online publication date: 30 May 2024

Article Views: 288

Article Downloads: 170

Open Access References How to cite this article