Educational opportunities and resources for students differ around the world. Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) highlights students’ achievement, home resources, and attitudes towards mathematics and science. In this study, we sought to identify home resources and attitudes towards mathematics factors that significantly predict fourth graders’ mathematics achievement in South Korea, Turkey, and the United States using TIMSS 2015 data. Results indicated that home resources and attitudes towards mathematics both positively and significantly predicted students’ mathematics achievement. Moreover, an interesting pattern emerged as Turkish students’ attitudes towards mathematics were higher and mathematics achievement scores were lower than students from South Korea, and the United States. Future research may include longitudinal studies of mathematics achievement among the three countries.