Finnish primary school students’ perceptions on water systems: Exploring sources and usage at home and in society
Sirpa Kärkkäinen 1 * , Sari Havu-Nuutinen 1 , Sini Kontkanen 1 , Katariina Waltzer 2
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1 School of Applied Educational Science and Teacher Education, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, FINLAND2 School of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, FINLAND* Corresponding Author


Previous studies have shown that making informed decisions about water issues requires socio-scientific reasoning (SSR), which is challenging for primary school students. This study focuses on third and fourth graders’ (n=101) perceptions regarding water systems, water sources and usage patterns both at home and within society. The primary school students participated in a water project that lasted for eight lessons. The study was a case study and the data consisted of audio recordings of group conversations on tasks given in the lessons. The students’ perceptions were analyzed using inductive content analysis and structure of observed learning outcome-taxonomy. Students discussed the significance of using water for drinking, food preparation, and maintaining personal hygiene. Students highlighted conservation, health, environmental and household aspects when discussing water conservation and water purification. There is a need to empower primary school students through building scientific literacy and SSR to inform evidence-based decisions related to water issues.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Article Type: Research Article

EURASIA J Math Sci Tech Ed, 2024, Volume 20, Issue 5, Article No: em2434

Publication date: 01 May 2024

Online publication date: 08 Apr 2024

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Article Downloads: 387

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