Whereas equity issues are mainly discussed with respect to students at risk, this article focuses on mathematical potentials of under-privileged students and therefore elaborates a wide, dynamic and participatory conceptualization of (sometimes still hidden) mathematical potentials. An extended research review theoretically and empirically grounds the presented approach for uncovering and enhancing (possibly underprivileged) students in design principles for the instructional design and the ways in which teachers notice students’ and situations’ potentials. Dual design research methodology on students’ and teachers’ level is adopted to develop whole class enrichment settings with rich tasks and empirically study the initiated processes. The empirical investigation of the classroom processes show that the chosen design principles can enhance the intended enrichment processes on the student side, but need to be strongly supported by teachers’ expertise in noticing and fostering students. An important outcome is the perspective model for teachers’ necessary diagnostic perspectives for noticing and enhancing the potentials. Consequences are formulated for professional development programs.