The purpose of this article is to examine teachers’ and facilitators’ (subject advisors) views of the approaches to teaching mathematics and mathematical literacy (ML). Using Bernstein’s (1996) constructs of recognition and realisation rules, I analysed data from interviews conducted with mathematics and ML teachers and facilitators. The analysis shows that some teaching strategies are associated with mathematics and others with ML. That is, teachers and facilitators refer to teaching strategies that are domain specific (mathematics and ML). I therefore ask what it means for teaching strategies to be domain specific, particularly in the context of mathematics and ML.