Basic education plays the fundamental and leading role in the national education system. Strengthening and optimizing the allocation of resources in basic education and improving the performance of fiscal expenditure on basic education has always been the focus of academic attention. In this paper, the teacher-student ratio, per-student educational appropriations, per-student fixed assets are taken as the input indexes, graduation rate as the output index, data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to analyze the performance of basic education expenditure from 2005 to 2014, obtaining the comprehensive technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency, scale efficiency, scale income and scale elasticity of the basic education expenditure. It is believed that in the input structure of basic education, raising the amount of input in junior middle school can improve the expenditure performance of the whole basic education better than the other three stages. At the same time, in the way of basic education input, improving the quality of resource allocation of input factors can improve the performance of basic education expenditure better than simply increasing the scale of input factors. Therefore, the performance of fiscal expenditure can be improved by optimizing the input structure of the financial expenditure and the matching quality of resources in the basic education stage.