The purpose of this study was to examine science students’ and teachers’ views of the provision and implementation of inquiry-based instruction in UAE secondary school science classes. Two instruments were developed and validated to collect participants’ views of the provision and practice of inquiry-related activities. The findings suggested that both students and teachers believed that the curriculum materials lend themselves to supporting inquiry instruction, judging by the relatively high mean scores for both groups of participants with regard to the provision of inquiry activities, as described by the essential features of inquiry-based instruction. However, compared with their students, science teachers showed a statistically significant higher mean score with regard to the provision of curriculum materials in supporting implementation of inquiry instruction and a lower mean score with regard to the provision of integrated science processes in curriculum materials. Other similar trends were also detected, with teachers reporting statistically significant higher mean scores than their students with regard to opportunities to plan investigations, ask questions during instruction and use of science process skills. Demographic variables of gender, teaching experience and subject taught showed no impact on teachers’ views. Challenges and obstacles that are likely to impede inquiry-based instruction were also identified.