The present study took a reciprocal learning approach to examine Canadian and Chinese elementary school students’ (N=40) mathematics problem posing and problem solving. Data included student performance, Skype meeting videos, meeting notes, and interviews transcripts through direct and indirect interactions between a pair of Canadian and Chinese sister schools. Qualitative and quantitative analyses show that the Chinese students and the Canadian students differed in the type of problems they posed to their counterparts, the performance of solving the problems posed by the counterparts, the strategies used to solve the problems, and the behavioral approach adopted to solve the problems. Possible sources of the differences and practical implications for mathematical teaching are discussed. The study proffered suggestions on what the Canadian and the Chinese can learn educationally from each other.