The effect of teaching conceptual knowledge on students’ achievement, anxiety about, and attitude toward mathematics
Yusuf Fakhraddin Hussein 1 2 * , Csaba Csíkos 3
More Detail
1 Faculty of Education and Psychology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, HUNGARY2 Mathematics Education 3 Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Szeged, Szeged, HUNGARY* Corresponding Author


This study investigates how teaching for conceptual understanding alongside procedural knowledge affects students’ achievement in, anxiety about, and attitude toward mathematics. Purposive sampling was used to select 200 secondary school students from Erbil-Iraq. An experimental approach was applied to evaluate the sample study. In the experimental group, conceptual teaching was the focus. In the control group, conventional teaching was used. Pre- and post-tests for an achievement test, mathematics attitude scale, and abbreviated math anxiety scale were applied to both groups to reveal the effect of conceptual knowledge on students’ achievement, attitudes, and anxiety, respectively. Repeated measure ANOVA was used to analysis the data. The results show that there is a statistically significant difference in mathematics achievement between the two groups (p<.001). Students’ attitudes toward mathematics in treatment group developed positively. Nevertheless, teaching mathematics conceptually reduced anxiety among female students more effectively than it did among male ones.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Article Type: Research Article

EURASIA J Math Sci Tech Ed, 2023, Volume 19, Issue 2, Article No: em2226

Publication date: 05 Feb 2023

Article Views: 1136

Article Downloads: 1389

Open Access References How to cite this article