This study investigates how teaching for conceptual understanding alongside procedural knowledge affects students’ achievement in, anxiety about, and attitude toward mathematics. Purposive sampling was used to select 200 secondary school students from Erbil-Iraq. An experimental approach was applied to evaluate the sample study. In the experimental group, conceptual teaching was the focus. In the control group, conventional teaching was used. Pre- and post-tests for an achievement test, mathematics attitude scale, and abbreviated math anxiety scale were applied to both groups to reveal the effect of conceptual knowledge on students’ achievement, attitudes, and anxiety, respectively. Repeated measure ANOVA was used to analysis the data. The results show that there is a statistically significant difference in mathematics achievement between the two groups (p<.001). Students’ attitudes toward mathematics in treatment group developed positively. Nevertheless, teaching mathematics conceptually reduced anxiety among female students more effectively than it did among male ones.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Article Type: Research Article
EURASIA J Math Sci Tech Ed, 2023, Volume 19, Issue 2, Article No: em2226
Publication date: 05 Feb 2023
Article Views: 388
Article Downloads: 253Open Access References How to cite this article
- Aiken, L. R. (1970). Attitudes toward mathematics. Review of Educational Research, 40(4), 551-596. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543040004551
- Aiken, L. R., & Dreger, R. M. (1961). The effect of attitudes on performance in mathematics. Journal of Educational Psychology, 52(1), 19-24. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0041309
- Amin, I., & Sukestiyarno, Y. L. (2015). Analysis metacognitive skills on learning mathematics in high school. International Journal of Education and Research, 3(3), 213-222.
- Andamon, J., & Tan, D. A. (2018). Conceptual understanding, attitude, and performance in mathematics of grade 7 students. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 7(8), 96-105.
- Ashcraft, M. H. (2002). Math anxiety: Personal, educational, and cognitive consequences. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11(5), 181-185. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.00196
- Ashcraft, M. H., & Kirk, E. P. (2001). The relationships among working memory, math anxiety and performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 130(2), 224-237. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-34184.108.40.206
- Ashcraft, M., & Moore, A. M. (2009). Mathematics anxiety and the affective drop in performance. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 27(3), 197-205. https://doi.org/10.1177/0734282908330580
- Beesdo, K., Knappe, S., & Pine, D. S. (2009). Anxiety and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: Developmental issues and implications for DSM-V. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 32, 483-524. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2009.06.002
- Bhat, H. N., & Bhardwaj, R. (2014). The concept of academic achievements. International Journal of Education and Science Research Review, 1(6), 93-94.
- Burns, M. (1998). Math: Facing an American phobia. Math Solutions.
- Capinding, A. T. (2022). Impact of modular distance learning on high school students mathematics motivation, interest/attitude, anxiety and achievement during the COVID-19 pandemic. European Journal of Educational Research, 11(2), 917-934. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.11.2.917
- Capraro, M. M., & Joffrion, H. (2006). Algebraic equations: Can middle-school students meaningfully translate from words to mathematical symbols? Reading Psychology, 27(2-3), 147-164. https://doi.org/10.1080/02702710600642467
- Carey, E., Hill, F., Devine, A., & Szücs, D. (2016). The chicken or the egg? The direction of the relationship between mathematics anxiety and mathematics performance. Frontiers in Psychology, 6(1), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01987
- Casty, M. M., Ciriaka, M. G., & Peter, R. (2021). Mathematics anxiety, attitude, and performance among secondary school students in Kenya. Educational Research and Reviews, 16(6), 226-235. https://doi.org/10.5897/ERR2021.4119
- Chen, L., Bae, S. R., Battista, C., Qin, S., Chen, T., Evans, T. M., & Menon, V. (2018). Positive attitude toward math supports early academic success: Behavioral evidence and neurocognitive mechanisms. Psychological Science, 29(3), 390-402. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797617735528
- Chernoff, J., & Stone, M. (2012). An examination of math anxiety research. Journal of Educational Psychology, 52, 29-31.
- Christiansen, R. (2021). How the COVID-19 pandemic affected high school student mathematical anxiety during distance learning [Doctoral dissertation, Minnesota State University].
- Cook, D. A., & Hatala, R. (2016). Validation of educational assessments: A primer for simulation and beyond. Advances in Simulation, 1(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41077-016-0033-y
- Cribbs, J., Huang, X., & Piatek‐Jimenez, K. (2021). Relations of mathematics mindset, mathematics anxiety, mathematics identity, and mathematics self‐efficacy to STEM career choice: A structural equation modeling approach. School Science and Mathematics, 121(5), 275-287. https://doi.org/10.1111/ssm.12470
- Crooks, N. M., & Alibali, M. W. (2014). Defining and measuring conceptual knowledge in mathematics. Developmental Review, 34(4), 344-377. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2014.10.001
- Cruikshank, D.E., & Sheffield, L.J. (1992). Teaching and learning elementary and middle school mathematics. Merrill.
- Csíkos, C. (2022). Metacognitive and non-metacognitive processes in arithmetic performance: Can there be more than one meta-level? Journal of Intelligence, 10(3), 53. https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030053
- Curtain-Phillips, M. (1999). Math attack: How to reduce math anxiety in the classroom, at work and in everyday personal use. Marilyn Curtain Phillips.
- De Zeeuw, A., Craig, T., & You, H. S. (2013). Assessing conceptual understanding in mathematics. In Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (pp. 1742-1744). IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/FIE.2013.6685135
- Dimitrov, D. M., & Rumrill Jr, P. D. (2003). Pretest-posttest designs and measurement of change. Work-a Journal of Prevention Assessment & Rehabilitation, 20(2), 159-165.
- Dowker, A., Bennett, K., & Smith, L. (2012). Attitudes to mathematics in primary school children. Child Development Research, 2012, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/124939
- Du Toit, S., & Kotze, G. (2009). Metacognitive strategies in the teaching and learning of mathematics. Pythagoras, (70), 57-67. https://doi.org/10.4102/pythagoras.v0i70.39
- Eli, J. A., Mohr-Schroeder, M. J., & Lee, C. W. (2011). Exploring mathematical connections of prospective middle-grades teachers through card-sorting tasks. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 23(3), 297-319. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13394-011-0017-0
- Esuong, U. U., & Edoho, E., (2018). Correlates of students attitude towards mathematics and academic performance in senior secondary school students in cross river state. Department of Science Education, University of Calabar, Calabar. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.30203.77608
- Evitts, T. (2005). Investigating the mathematical connections that preservice teachers use and develop while solving problems from reform curricula [Doctoral dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University].
- Faulkenberry, D. (2003). Secondary mathematics preservice teachers’ conceptions of rational numbers [Doctoral dissertation, Oklahoma State University].
- Finlayson, M. (2014). Addressing math anxiety in the classroom. Improving Schools, 17, 99-115. https://doi.org/10.1177/1365480214521457
- Fisher, L. & Rikard B. (2008). Classroom processes, sex of students and confidence in learning Mathematics. Journal of Research in Mathematics Education, 20(3), 242-260. https://doi.org/10.5951/jresematheduc.20.3.0242
- Furner, J. M. (2019). Math anxiety trends: A poor math attitude can be a real disability. Journal of Advances in Education Research, 4(2), 75-85. https://doi.org/10.22606/jaer.2019.42004
- Furner, J. M., & Berman, B. T. (2003). Review of research: Math anxiety: Overcoming a major obstacle to the improvement of student math performance. Childhood Education, 79(3), 170-174. https://doi.org/10.1080/00094056.2003.10522220
- Gall, M. D., Borg, W. R., & Gall, J. P. (2003). Education research: An introduction. Longman.
- Geist, E. (2010). The anti-anxiety curriculum: Combating math anxiety in the classroom. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 37(1), 24-31.
- Generalao, V. S. (2012) Investigating mathematical skills and attitude towards the performance of freshmen high school students [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Central Mindanao University.
- Grant, G. (2014). A metacognitive-based tutoring program to improve mathematical abilities of rural high school students: An action research study [Doctoral dissertation, Capella University].
- Gunderson, E. A., Park, D., Maloney, E. A., Beilock, S. L., & Levine, S. C. (2018). Reciprocal relations among motivational frameworks, math anxiety, and math achievement in early elementary school. Journal of Cognition and Development, 19(1), 21-46. https://doi.org/10.1080/15248372.2017.1421538
- Guo, J., Marsh, H. W., Parker, P. D., Morin, A. J., & Yeung, A. S. (2015). Expectancy-value in mathematics, gender, and socioeconomic background as predictors of achievement and aspirations: A multi-cohort study. Learning and Individual Differences, 37, 161-168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2015.01.008
- Gurbuz, R., Catlioglu, H., Birgin, O., & Erdem, E. (2010). An investigation of fifth grade students’ conceptual development of probability through activity based instruction: A quasi-experimental study. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 10(2), 1053-1068.
- Hasan, M. T. (2021). Exploring investigation of the impact of studying statistics at enhancing mathematical skills during years of faculty. Cihan University-Erbil Scientific Journal, 5(1), 42-46. https://doi.org/10.24086/cuesj.v5n1y2021.pp42-46
- Hembree, R. (1990). The nature, effects, and relief of mathematics anxiety. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 21(1), 33-46. https://doi.org/10.2307/749455
- Hiebert, J., & Carpenter, T. (1992). Learning and teaching with understanding. In D. Grouws (Ed.), Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 65-97). Macmillan.
- Hopko, D. R., Mahadevan, R., Bare, R. L., & Hunt, M. K. (2003). The abbreviated math anxiety scale (AMAS) construction, validity, and reliability. Assessment, 10(2), 178-182. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191103010002008
- Hurrell, D. P. (2021). Conceptual knowledge or procedural knowledge or conceptual knowledge and procedural knowledge: Why the conjunction is important for teachers. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 46(2). https://doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2021v46n2.4
- Hussein, Y. F., & Csíkos, C. (2021). How do secondary school students from the Kurdistan Region of Iraq understand the concept of function? Teaching Mathematics and Computer Science, 19(2), 221-244. https://doi.org/10.5485/TMCS.2021.0529
- Hyde, J. S., & Mertz, J. E. (2009). Gender, culture, and mathematics performance. PNAS, 106(22), 8801-8807. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0901265106
- Hyde, J. S., Fennema, E., & Lamon, S. J. (1990). Gender differences in mathematics performance: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 107(2), 139-155. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.107.2.139
- Ilhan, A., Pocan, S., & Gemcioglu, M. (2022). The effect of mathematics class commitment and anxiety on mathematics success: A path analysis study. Education and Urban Society, 54(2), 186-204. https://doi.org/10.1177/00131245211028621
- Ilyas, M., & Basir, F. (2019). Students metacognitive skill in learning mathematics through cooperative based emotional intelligence. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1397, 012089. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1397/1/012089
- James, A. O., Tunde, B. F., Ademuyiwa, A. C., & Bolanle, A. O. (2013). Effects of gender, mathematics anxiety and achievement motivation on college students’ achievement in mathematics. International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies, 1(1), 15-22. https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.1n.1p.15
- Jameson, M. M. (2014). Contextual factors related to math anxiety in second-grade children. The Journal of Experimental Education, 82(4), 518-536. https://doi.org/10.1080.00220973.2013.813367
- Jamieson, J. P., Black, A. E., Pelaia, L. E., & Reis, H. T. (2021). The impact of mathematics anxiety on stress appraisals, neuroendocrine responses, and academic performance in a community college sample. Journal of Educational Psychology, 113(6), 1164-1176. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000636
- Jansen, B. R., Louwerse, J., Straatemeier, M., Van der Ven, S. H., Klinkenberg, S., & Van der Maas, H. L. (2013). The influence of experiencing success in math on math anxiety, perceived math competence, and math performance. Learning and Individual Differences, 24, 190-197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2012.12.014
- Jennison, M., & Beswick, K. (2010). Student attitude, student understanding and mathematics anxiety. In L. Sparrow, B. Kissane, & C. Hurst (Eds.), Shaping the future of mathematics education: Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (pp. 280-288). MERGA.
- Jonassen, D., Spector, M. J., Driscoll, M., Merrill, M. D., van Merrienboer, J., & Driscoll, M. P. (2008). Handbook of research on educational communications and technology: A project of the association for educational communications and technology. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203880869
- Ketterlin-Geller, L. R., Jungjohann, K., Chard, D. J., & Baker, S. (2007). From arithmetic to algebra. Educational Leadership, 65(3), 66-71.
- Khoule, A., Bonsu, N. O., & El Houari, H. (2017). Impact of conceptual and procedural knowledge on students mathematics anxiety. International Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics, 4(1), 8-17.
- Kramarski, B., Mevarech, Z. R., & Arami, M. (2002). The effects of metacognitive instruction on solving mathematical authentic tasks. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 49(2), 225-250. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016282811724
- Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30(3), 607-610. https://doi.org/10.1177/001316447003000308
- Kuhn, D. (2000). Metacognitive development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9(5), 178-181. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8721.00088
- Lau, T., Hawes, Z., Tremblay, P., & Ansari, D. (2022). Disentangling the individual and contextual effects of math anxiety: A global perspective. PNAS, 119(7), e2115855119. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2115855119
- Lefevre, J., Kulak, A. G., & Heymans, S. L. (1992). Factors influencing the selection of university majors varying in mathematical content. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 23(4), 276-289. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0078742
- Lerner, J., & Friesema, A. (2013). Do timed tests hurt deep math learning. American Teacher, 97(4), 3.
- Lim, C. H. (2007). Educational research: Quantitative and qualitative approaches. McGraw Hill.
- Ma, X. (1999). A meta-analysis of the relationship between anxiety toward mathematics and achievement in mathematics. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 30, 520-540. https://doi.org/10.2307/749772
- Mariquit, T., & Luna, C. (2017). Probing students’ conceptual understanding, mathematical fluency, and mathematics anxiety through cognitive-demand mathematical tasks. International Journal of Science and Research, 6(8), 988-991.
- Maryunis, A. (1989). Information mapping method in the secondary school (SMA) learning and teaching process: an observation experiment conducted at district of Jakarta [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University Negeri Jakarta.
- McLeod, D. B. (1992). Research on affect in mathematics education: A reconceptualization. In D. A. Grouws (Ed.), Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning: A project of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (pp. 575-596). Macmillan Publishing Co, Inc.
- McLeod, D. B. (1994). Research on affect and mathematics learning in JRME: 1970 to present. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 25(6), 637-647. https://doi.org/10.2307/749576
- Meece, J. L., Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (1990). Predictors of math anxiety and its influence on young adolescents’ course enrolment intentions and performance in mathematics. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 60-70. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06220.127.116.11
- Minarni, A., Napitupulu, E. E., & Husein, R. (2016). Mathematical understanding and representation ability of public junior high school in North Sumatra. Journal on Mathematics Education, 7(1), 43-56. https://doi.org/10.22342/jme.7.1.2816.43-56
- Moghadam, A., & Fard, M. (2011). Surveying the effect of metacognitive education on the on the mathematics achievement of 1st grade high junior school female students in educational district 5, Tehran city, 2009-10 educational year. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 1531-1540. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.11.394
- Molina, C. (2014). Teaching mathematics conceptually. SEDL Insights, 1(4).
- Moschkovich, J., Schoenfeld, A. H., & Arcavi, A. (1993). Aspects of understanding: On multiple perspectives and representations of linear relations and connections amount them. In T. Romberg, E. Fennema, & T. Carpenter (Eds.), Integrating research in the graphical representation of function (pp. 69-100). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
- Mullis, I. V. S., Martin, M. O., Foy, P., Kelly, D. L., & Fishbein, B. (2020). TIMSS 2019 international results in mathematics and science [Paper presentation]. The TIMSS & PIRLS International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement.
- Naungayan, R. R. (2022). Attitude towards mathematics and mathematics achievement of secondary school learners in Banayoyo-Lidlidda District. Puissant, 3, 395-407.
- NCTM. (2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
- Newstead, K. (1998). Aspects of children’s mathematics anxiety. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 36, 53-71. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1003177809664
- Nikolopoulou, K. (2022). What is content validity? Definition and examples. https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/content-validity/#:~:text=Content%20validity%20evaluates%20how%20well,four%20types%20of%20measurement%20validity
- Papanastasiou, C. (2000). Effects of attitudes and beliefs on mathematics achievement. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 26(1), 27-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0191-491x(00)00004-3
- Patkin, D., & Plaksin, O. (2018). Procedural and relational understanding of pre-service mathematics teachers regarding spatial perception of angles in pyramids. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 50(1), 121-140. https://doi.org/10.1080/0020739X.2018.1480808
- Pehkonen, E., & Pietilä, A. (2003). On relationships between beliefs and knowledge in mathematics education. In Proceedings of the CERME-3 (pp. 1-8).
- Price, J. A. B. (2015). Children’s mathematics anxiety and its effect on their conceptual understanding of arithmetic and their arithmetic fluency [Master’s thesis, The University of Regina].
- Putnam, R. T., Heaton, R. M., Prawat, R. S., & Remillard, J. (1992). Teaching mathematics for understanding: Discussing case studies of four fifth-grade teachers. The Elementary School Journal, 93(2), 213-228. https://doi.org/10.1086/461723
- Rayner, V., Pitsolantis, N., & Osana, H. (2009). Mathematics anxiety in preservice teachers: Its relationship to their conceptual and procedural knowledge of fractions. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 21(3), 60-85. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03217553
- Reys, R. E., Suydam, M. N., & Lindquist, M. N. (1995). Helping children learn mathematics. Allyn & Bacon.
- Richardson, F. C., & Suinn, R. M. (1972). The mathematics anxiety rating scale: Psychometric data. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 19, 551-554. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0033456
- Richland, L. E., Naslund‐Hadley, E., Alonzo, H., Lyons, E., & Vollman, E. (2020). Teacher and students’ mathematics anxiety and achievement in a low‐income national context. Mind, Brain, and Education, 14(4), 400-414. https://doi.org/10.1111/mbe.12253
- Robiah, S. (1994). Education in Malaysia: Challenges of the future. Fajar Bakti.
- Robson, S. (2011). Producing and using video data in the early years: Ethical questions and practical consequences in research with young children. Children & Society, 25(3), 179-189. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1099-0860.2009.00267.x
- Ross, S. M., Morrison, G. R., & Lowther, D. L. (2005). Using experimental methods in higher education research. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 16(2), 39-64. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02961474
- Rossnan, S. (2006). Overcoming math anxiety. Mathitudes, 1(1), 1-4.
- Saha, J., Ahmmed, S., Ali, M., Tamal, M., & Rezaul, K. (2020). ICT based mathematics skill development program: An initiative to overcome mathematics anxiety. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 15(14), 252-261. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v15i14.14149
- Salehi, J., (2002). The effect of metacognitive knowledge & self-questioning guided learning method on problem solving performance of children [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Alameh Tabtabaee University-Tehran.
- Segarra, J., & Julià, C. (2021). Attitude towards mathematics of fifth grade primary school students and self-efficacy of teachers. Ciencias Psicológicas [Psychological Sciences], 15(1), e-2170.
- Sekaran, U. (1992). Research methods for business: A skill-building approach. Wiley.
- Shore, K. (2005). Dr. Ken Shore’s classroom problem solver math anxiety. http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/shore/shore066.shtml
- Siregar, R., & Siagian, M. D. (2019). Mathematical connection ability: Teacher’s perception and experience in learning. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1315, 012041. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1315/1/012041
- Skemp, R. (1971). The psychology of mathematics. Penguin Books.
- Skemp, R. R. (1976). Relational understanding and instrumental understanding. Mathematics Teaching, 77(1), 20-26.
- Skemp, R. R. (1989). Mathematics in the primary school. Routledge.
- Skemp, R. R. (2006). Relational understanding and instrumental understanding. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 12(2), 88-95. https://doi.org/10.5951/mtms.12.2.0088
- Sorvo, R., Koponen, T., Viholainen, H., Aro, T., Räikkönen, E., Peura, P., Tolvonen, A., & Aro, M. (2019). Development of math anxiety and its longitudinal relationships with arithmetic achievement among primary school children. Learning and Individual Differences, 69(1), 173-181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2018.12.005
- Star, J. R., & Stylianides, G. J. (2013). Procedural and conceptual knowledge: Exploring the gap between knowledge type and knowledge quality. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 13(2), 169-181. https://doi.org/10.1080/14926156.2013.784828
- Suherman, E., & Sukjaya, Y. (1990). Evaluation of mathematics education. Wijayakusumah.
- Sunghwan, H., & Taekwon, S. (2021). Students’ attitude toward mathematics and its relationship with mathematics achievement. Journal of Education and e-Learning Research, 8(3), 272-280. https://doi.org/10.20448/journal.509.2021.83.272.280
- Taylor, L., & Brooks, K. (1986). Building math confidence by overcoming math anxiety. From theory to practice. Adult Literacy and Basic Education, 10(1).
- Tekin-Sitrava, R. (2017). Middle grade students’ concept images of algebraic concepts. Journal of Education and Learning, 6(3), 299-304. https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v6n3p299
- Tobias, S. (1993). Overcoming math anxiety. Norton Company.
- Turner, J. C., Midgley, C., Meyer, D. K., Gheen, M., Anderman, E. M., Kang, Y., & Patrick, H. (2002). The classroom environment and students’ reports of avoidance strategies in mathematics: A multimethod study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(1), 88-106. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0618.104.22.168
- Utomo, D. (2020). The pattern of a relational understanding of fifth-grade students on integer operations. Journal of Research and Advances in Mathematics Education, 5(2), 119-129. https://doi.org/10.23917/jramathedu.v5i2.9545
- Vermetten, Y. J., Lodewijks, H. G., & Vermunt, J. D. (1999). Consistency and variability of learning strategies in different university courses. Higher Education, 37(1), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1003573727713
- Vinson, B. (2001). A comparison of preservice teachers’ mathematics anxiety before and after a methods class emphasizing manipulatives. Early Childhood Education Journal, 29(2), 89-94. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1012568711257
- Wang, Z., Hart, S. A., Kovas, Y., Lukowski, S., Soden, B., Thompson, L. A., Plomin, R., McLoughlin, G., Bartlette, C. W., Lyons, I. M., & Petrill, S. A. (2014). Who is afraid of math? Two sources of genetic variance for mathematical anxiety. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55(9), 1056-1064. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12224
- Webb, R. (2017). Conceptual learning in mathematics: How number talks benefit students with math anxiety [Master’s thesis, University of Toronto].
- Widmer, C., & Chavez, A. (1982). Math anxiety and elementary school teachers. Education, 102(3), 272-276.
- Wigfield, A., Tonks, S. M., & Klauda, S. L. (2016). Expectancy-value theory. In K. R. Wentzel, & D. B. Miele (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. 55-74). Routledge.
- Wood, E. F. (1988). Math anxiety and elementary teachers: What does research tell us? For Learning of Mathematics, 8(1), 8-13.
- Wu, S. S., Barth, M., Amin, H., Mclarne, V., & Menon, V. (2012). Math anxiety in second and third graders and its relation to mathematics achievement. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00162
- Zakaria, E., Yaakob, M., Maat, S. & Adnan, M. (2010). Conceptual knowledge and mathematics achievement of matriculation students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9, 1020-1024. doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.12.279
- Zamir, S., Yang, Z., Wenwu, H., & Sarwar, U. (2022). Assessing the attitude and problem-based learning in mathematics through PLS-SEM modeling. PLoS ONE, 17(5), e0266363. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0266363
- Zhang, X., Yang, Y., Zou, X., Hu, B. Y., & Ren, L. (2020). Measuring preschool children’s affective attitudes toward mathematics. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 53, 413-424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2020.05.012
- Zulnaidi, H., & Zamri, S. (2017). The effectiveness of the GeoGebra software: The intermediary role of procedural knowledge on students’ conceptual knowledge and their achievement in mathematics. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 13(6), 2155-2180. https://doi.org/10.12973/eurasia.2017.01219a
How to cite this article
Hussein, Y. F., & Csíkos, C. (2023). The effect of teaching conceptual knowledge on students’ achievement, anxiety about, and attitude toward mathematics. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 19(2), em2226. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejmste/12938
Hussein YF, Csíkos C. The effect of teaching conceptual knowledge on students’ achievement, anxiety about, and attitude toward mathematics. EURASIA J Math Sci Tech Ed. 2023;19(2):em2226. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejmste/12938
Hussein YF, Csíkos C. The effect of teaching conceptual knowledge on students’ achievement, anxiety about, and attitude toward mathematics. EURASIA J Math Sci Tech Ed. 2023;19(2), em2226. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejmste/12938
Hussein, Yusuf Fakhraddin, and Csaba Csíkos. "The effect of teaching conceptual knowledge on students’ achievement, anxiety about, and attitude toward mathematics". Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education 2023 19 no. 2 (2023): em2226. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejmste/12938
Hussein, Y. F., and Csíkos, C. (2023). The effect of teaching conceptual knowledge on students’ achievement, anxiety about, and attitude toward mathematics. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 19(2), em2226. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejmste/12938
Hussein, Yusuf Fakhraddin et al. "The effect of teaching conceptual knowledge on students’ achievement, anxiety about, and attitude toward mathematics". Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, vol. 19, no. 2, 2023, em2226. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejmste/12938