Algebraic thinking is a method of solving math problems that stresses the significance of general connections. Excellent algebraic thinking necessitates strong symbolization and generalization ability. Students aged 7 to 15 are at the Piaget thinking stage’s formal operational stage. Teachers, especially those working with secondary school students, must be aware of how kids think and reason algebraically. A detailed literature review provides an overview of research on algebraic thinking. The goal of this study was to compile a list of full-text papers that presented empirical research on algebraic thinking. The “algebraic thinking” search phrase was used to search the ERIC and Scopus databases. A total of 36 studies were included in the review. The educational levels, participants, nations, research methodologies, study objectives, data collecting tools, and analytic approaches have all been considered in studies on algebraic thinking. The number of studies published has risen over time. 2019 was the year with the most studies. The majority of the research was carried out in the United States of America. The majority of the participants in the study were elementary and secondary school pupils. Teachers’ knowledge, elements impacting algebraic thinking, relations, and comprehension, as well as measuring categories, were determined when the study was grouped according to the study’s topic. The algebraic thinking exam was the most popular data gathering instrument. The qualitative technique was used in the study of algebraic thinking. The most common method was found to be qualitative analysis. While inferential statistics are preferred in quantitative techniques, latent class analysis, cluster analysis, and test development analysis are used depending on the study design. According to the results, it was stated that in-service or pre-service teacher training is needed for the development of algebraic thinking and non-routine activities such as games should be used in the classroom. In addition, it has been determined that teaching strategies such as geometry representation, multiple representation strategies, mental computational activity also improve algebraic thinking.
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