Studies indicate that the failure of science education to meet the needs of the 21st century is to some extent due to the inability to incorporate scientific reasoning and higher order assessments in the school instruction. Though the outcomes of education seek higher-order thinking abilities there is a lack of high ability assessments in low-income nations. This study aimed to develop and validate Scientific Reasoning Progress Tool (SRPT) that measures students’ reasoning abilities. In this study, 40 items were developed, pilot-tested, and administered to 242 students from grade eight. The SRPT was a valid and reliable instrument. It was also found that the reasoning ability of grade 8 students’ is limited to the lower levels of reasoning. It is recommended that further study is essential through the adoption of the framework and the design to develop additional instruments and investigation of the progression of students’ scientific reasoning ability.