This article provided a comprehensive review of the most recent mathematics curriculum reform in the early 21st century in China. Three components of curriculum reform were identified. The developmental process, the content and implementation of Chinese mathematics curriculum standards, constituted the most important second level of description of a curriculum reform which could reflect the first level (overall societal level) and decide the third level (classroom practice level). It could be the first fundamental step to provided helpful insight to understand the curriculum reform within a certain culture. At last, the future direction of mathematics curriculum reform in China was introduced.