This study examined the validity and reliability of achievement goal instruments to determine the nature of achievement goals for Indonesian students in mathematics education programmes. A total of 538 students participated, selected by using cluster random sampling. A survey design was employed to investigate the factor structure of the achievement goals. Quantitative data were analysed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using SPSS 23 and AMOS 18. EFA revealed similar structures from prior research and the present study. The CFA approach verified the questionnaire of achievement goal was satisfactory for Indonesian students’ context. It also confirmed Indonesian students in mathematics education programmes adopt other-avoidance and self-approach goals. This work concludes the achievement goals of Indonesian university students have a six-factor structure. These findings imply the greater importance of validating and confirming the structure of pupils’ achievement goals relative to translating a construct into a different language.