This paper used a Virtual Companion System (VCS) to examine how specific design variables within virtual learning companion affect the learning process of learners as defined by the cognitive continuum of field-dependent, field-independent and field-mixed learners in LINE app for m-learning. The data were collected from 198 participants in a training project that used virtual learning companion as an adjunct to classroom instruction. The study considered to what extent the three guidance methods offered by the VCS would affect the learning outcomes of participants with three different types of cognitive styles. Each of the three guidance methods available within the VCS was designed to conform to the specific needs of field-independent, field-dependent, or fieldmixed participants. The results showed that participants who received a “guidance method” matching their “cognitive style” presented a significant improvement in their learning performance.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.