The learning effect of advanced mathematics among Chinese college students in social science majors is affected by factors such as personal factors, teachers’ affective support, teaching methods, and environment factors. The aim of this study was to explore the inter-relationships between these factors and learning effects on Advanced Mathematics. This study also helps to further describe how to solve these influencing factors, making it more valuable and applicable. The research samples comprised 413 students in Chinese College students in Social Science Majors. The questionnaire consists of 7 scales: students’ learning cognition, learning self-efficacy, learning initiative, learning effect, teachers’ affective support, teaching methods, and learning environment. The data were processed by the software package of SPSS 24.0 and AMOS 19.0. Parameter test (t-test and ANOVA), test hypothesis, exploratory factor analysis, regression analysis, structural equation model (SEM), confirmatory factor analysis, and path analysis were employed to analyze the data. The results indicated that students’ learning effect mainly influenced by their learning initiative. There is a positive relationship between teachers’ affective support and students’ learning cognition, learning self-efficacy. The findings can provide important references for improving mathematics education for social science majors’ students in Chinese universities.