The relevance of this research is defined by a possibility of increase in efficiency of school students’ research competence formation by means of robotics within fixed and extracurricular activities and additional education. The problem of a research is defined by a contradiction between widespread introduction of robotics in modern society life and insufficient techniques of studying robotics in order to key competences formation. The objective of this research is studying the didactic potential of robotics for school students’ research competence formation and to offer the methodical approach to the organization of classes in robotics on the basis of research tasks and research projects. The article presents methods of studying robotics, the use of which helps to form the skills of independent research activities, as well as the ability to apply modern technology in solving practical problems. The article can be used by teachers of educational organizations and the organizations of additional education in preparation for robotics classes (in fixed and in extracurricular activities, in additional education); in analysis of teaching robotics methods, teachers of pedagogical universities to present the methodology of teaching robotics to the students, teaching staff of institutions of additional professional education in preparation for training courses.