Because teachers cannot directly access the processes by which students construct their mathematical knowledge, Teacher Noticing, an activity that involves observing students’ work, interpreting students’ mathematical thinking about a task based on their remarks or actions, and responding to their thinking, is important to grasp students’ mathematical understanding. A possible way for teachers to develop noticing expertise is to engage in a situation focused on student thinking such as clinical interviews. However, noticing students’ thinking productively through clinical interviews remains a challenge, especially for pre-service teachers, not only because it requires a broad range of knowledge but also because of the absence of a framework to inform and evaluate the process. This paper addresses the development of such a framework for evaluating the quality of pre-service teachers’ noticing expertise in a context where students’ thinking is emphasized by removing normal classroom interruptions. It then demonstrates how the framework can be used for this purpose through three empirical examples of pre-service teachers who engaged in an intervention that involved conducting clinical interviews and analyzing students’ mathematical thinking by watching video-recordings of their clinical interviews.
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