This study aimed to explore the current status of teachers’ multicultural education literacy and multicultural curriculum practices, with a total of 274 elementary school science teachers from Taitung County as survey participants. The questionnaire used a Likert-type four-point scale which content included the teachers’ perception of multicultural education literacy and their multicultural education curriculum practices. The primary findings were as follows: (1)Teachers’ perception of multicultural education literacy reflected a highly positive and affirming attitude. (2)Teachers from various backgrounds did not demonstrate significant differences in their perception related to multicultural education literacy. (3)Teachers who graduated from junior teacher colleges, normal universities, or teacher colleges and those who teach natural sciences were more likely to place importance on multicultural concepts and practices in their curriculum. (4)Although teachers had a high level of perception related to multicultural education, there was still a gap in their ability to actually carry out multicultural teaching.