The Relationship between Integrating Educational Technology in Mathematics Education and the Mathematics Achievement of German Students
Petronella Elize Saal 1 * , Marien Alet Graham 1, Linda van Ryneveld 2
More Detail
1 Department of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, SOUTH AFRICA2 Comprehensive Online Education Services, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, SOUTH AFRICA* Corresponding Author


The Education system in Germany recently invested five billion euro in digital infrastructure for 40 000 schools. Therefore, this mixed-method study explored the relationship between integrating educational technology in mathematics education and the mathematics achievement of Grade 4 German students. Descriptive statistics and two-level Hierarchical Linear Models (HLM) were used to analyse the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2015 questionnaire data of students, their parents, mathematics teachers and principals. Semi-structured interviews and classroom observations were also used to collect data at two schools, which were conveniently and purposefully selected. Findings from HLM revealed that students who owned a mobile phone, a computer/tablet as well as those who used computers/tablets ‘every or almost every day’ at home, at school and other places for schoolwork, achieved lower mathematics scores than their counterparts. While the shared use of a computer/tablet and an internet connection positively and significantly predict student performances.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Article Type: Research Article

EURASIA J Math Sci Tech Ed, Volume 16, Issue 12, December 2020, Article No: em1905

Publication date: 21 Oct 2020

Article Views: 3277

Article Downloads: 1841

Open Access References How to cite this article