Tracing Effect in the Worked Examples-based Learning: An Exploration of Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity
Lian-Ming Yeo 1 * , Yuh-Tsuen Tzeng 1
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1 National Chung Cheng University, TAIWAN* Corresponding Author


Previous study has shown that tracing gesture may enhance the worked example-based learning by reducing cognitive load. The present study attempted to replicate the previous results and further explored the individual differences in tracing effect in relation to the learners’ working-memory capacity. Specifically, 11- to 13-year-old students varies in their working-memory capacity were asked to study worked examples on angles relationships involving parallel lines either without tracing instruction or with tracing instruction. The results showed that the tracing group outperformed the non-tracing group on a subsequent test and reported lower levels of test difficulty. In addition, the learning outcomes between the low- and high-capacity individuals in both conditions were comparable, suggesting that tracing gesture offers a simple yet effective embodied technique that may further enhances the worked example-based learning by reducing cognitive load, however, its facilitation effect was not affected by the individuals’ working-memory capacity.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Article Type: Research Article

EURASIA J Math Sci Tech Ed, Volume 15, Issue 10, October 2019, Article No: em1760

Publication date: 09 May 2019

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