Assessment of scientific literacy levels among secondary school students in Lebanon: Exploring gender-based differences
Marina Baltikian 1 , Sirpa Kärkkäinen 1 * , Jari Kukkonen 1
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1 School of Applied Educational Science and Teacher Education, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, FINLAND* Corresponding Author


In recent years, educational reforms have made scientific literacy a major priority because of its increasing importance in today’s dynamic world. Program for international student assessment 2015 evaluated scientific literacy from 72 countries, and Lebanon ranked 65th. Scientific literacy levels among Lebanese secondary school students and gender differences are unknown. This study fills this research gap. A total of 130 students from Lebanon’s private secondary schools were involved in this research. Scientific literacy levels were assessed using an instrument developed by Gormally et al. (2012), who conceptualized nine science competencies contributing to scientific literacy including understanding research designs, creating and interpreting graphs, and solving quantitative problems. Welch’s ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to analyze the data. Lebanese secondary school students have very low scientific literacy levels, and no significant difference was observed between genders. We present recommendations for adding desired skills to the curriculum based on a review of the underlying factors.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Article Type: Research Article

EURASIA J Math Sci Tech Ed, 2024, Volume 20, Issue 3, Article No: em2407

Publication date: 01 Mar 2024

Online publication date: 26 Feb 2024

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