This study examined the relationships between mathematics teachers’ praise and students’ mathematics-related beliefs and their perceived mathematics achievement rank in their respective classes. This study provided reliability and validity information about an instrument to assess high school students’ mathematics beliefs. Students’ mathematics-related beliefs are positively related to teachers’ praise, as well as students’ perceptions of their own achievement rank in their respective classes. While it was found that the proportion of students who reported that their teachers praised them was relatively low (about 28%), the more praise teachers provide, the more desirable mathematics-related beliefs students have. In addition, the more praise teachers provide, the higher students perceived achievement. The findings of this study suggest that teachers’ praise may foster more desirable mathematics-related beliefs and achievement.