The integration of decision-making competence or comparable constructs into science education has been strongly enforced during the last twenty years. Germany captured the tendency with the introduction of national standards for science education that included a domain that refers to decision-making competence. This domain – ‘evaluation and judgement competence’ – is currently depicted by different models. This paper describes the models and existing international approaches on decision-making. To give insights into current research on the German construct, selected results of two studies regarding teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge with the focus on improving the integration of evaluation and judgement competence into biology lessons are presented. Relations of evaluation and judgement competence to international approaches and its integration into biology lessons are discussed.