Past studies have examined the models for the effects of early numeracy activities on children’s later mathematics achievement, with parental values as a precondition and socioeconomic status (SES) as an interaction measure with numeracy activities. This study proposed models of (1) the multiple effects of early numeracy activities, conditioned by parental value, on mathematics achievement and affect (e.g. confidence and interest) and (2) the multiple effects to be mediated by SES and early numeracy activities conditioned by parental value and child gender. The proposed models were examined using structural equation modeling with data from Taiwanese parental reports and child grade-4 tests and reports (N = 4,291; 49% girls) of TIMSS 2015. Three major results go beyond those previous research findings and may provide recommendations for educational practices. (1) Early numeracy activities have effects on mathematics confidence and interest in addition to achievement. (2) SES mediates the effects of early numeracy activities on achievement and confidence but not on interest. The mediating effect of SES suggests that high-quality educational provision should be provided during early numeracy activities. (3) Parents provide fewer numeracy activities for girls, which suggests that parents should provide more early numeracy activities to girls.
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