This study explored the impact of explicit instruction on argumentation-based pedagogy, coupled with modelling and hands-on learning activities on pre-service physics teachers’ perceived self-efficacy to teach science through argumentation. Participants consisted of 24 pre-service physics teachers attending an established teacher education program at a Turkish university. The results showed that the intervention had a positive impact on participants’ self-efficacy to teach science through argumentation. More specifically, pre-service teachers who participated in this study: 1) viewed argumentation as a pedagogical tool that can help students to engage in meaningful learning, 2) reported high self-efficacy to teach science through argumentation and 3) indicated high motivation to teach science through argumentation in their future classrooms. In spite of these positive outcomes, participants shared their hesitations to teach science through argumentation as well. The implications of these findings for teacher education, teacher induction and future research are discussed.