Investigating the Effects of Flipped Learning, Student Question Generation, and Instant Response Technologies on Students’ Learning Motivation, Attitudes, and Engagement: A Structural Equation Modeling
Chien-Yuan Su 1, Cheng-Huan Chen 2 *
More Detail
1 Department of Curriculum and Learning Science, College of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, CHINA
2 Graduate Institute of Information and Computer Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, TAIWAN
* Corresponding Author


In recent years, flipped learning has grown in popularity and been more widely adopted as a mechanism of enabling active learning, which is used in different educational scenarios. This paper describes a novel extension of flipped learning by integrating student question-generation and an instant response system into the higher education curriculum and examining the impacts of this extension on students’ learning motivation, attitudes, and engagement. Data were obtained from 54 sophomores at Zhejiang University, China, and the data were tested using the partial least squares structural equation modeling approach. The results indicated that this research model predicted 47.3% of the variance of learning motivation, 78.6% of the variance of attitudes toward learning, and 62.4% of the variance of learning engagement. Also, the results showed that the constructs of flipped learning and student question generation have a positive impact on the students’ learning motivation, attitudes, and engagement. In contrast, though the instant response system also has a positive impact on students’ engagement, it does not influence motivation or attitudes. Instructional implications and research suggestions are provided based on the results of the study.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Article Type: Research Article

EURASIA J Math Sci Tech Ed, 2018 - Volume 14 Issue 6, pp. 2453-2466

Publication date: 14 Apr 2018

Article Views: 1671

Article Downloads: 644

Open Access References How to cite this article