A questionnaire about job stress and burnout among the Science and Mathematics Teachers in basic education schools was conducted among the Science and Mathematics Teachers in Xi’an city, Xianyang city and Zhanjiang city. The result is stated as follows: 1) The modern society puts great stress on the Science and Mathematics Teachers in basic education schools. 2) Stress of interpersonal relationship positively predicts one’s decreased sense of achievement, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization while employment stress also positively predicts on emotional exhaustion. However, by contrast, stress of job reputation has a backward prediction on depersonalization. 3)the Science and Mathematics Teachers in basic education schools are under stress of career development, workload, examinations, interpersonal relationship, roles, responsibility and unemployment. These stresses have positive correlation with emotional exhaustion obviously. It comes to the conclusion that job stress in different surroundings leads to the 3 reasons for the Science and Mathematics Teachers’ job burnout, which shows a remarkable correlation between job stress and job burnout. Some advice should be implemented, which is for Chinese government, education administration, the society, professional association, school peers, the individual.