This study explored math teachers’ beliefs regarding their roles, practices and perceived change in implementing Problem-Based Learning in Qatar’s primary government schools. Multiple sources of qualitative data were generated including metaphors, lesson plans and interviews with seventeen math teachers. Although teachers considered PBL as an effective method benefiting student learning and they demonstrated progress in changing their beliefs moving from subject to didactic dimension through PBL implementation, their practices remained partially aligned with their perceived belief changes. This discrepancy could be attributed to several encountered challenges, including teachers’ insecurity and lack of confidence, difficulty in facilitating student collaboration, structural constraints, additional workload, and the lack of school and peer support. Results suggest the need for different types of “problems” and approaches such as more direct instruction, and higher feasibility in teachers’ autonomy when implementing PBL in primary education.