Measurement model testing: Adaption of self-efficacy and metacognitive awareness among university students
Chan Choon Tak 1, Hutkemri Zulnaidi 1 * , Leong Kwan Eu 1
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1 Department of Mathematics and Science Education, Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA* Corresponding Author


Individuals’ perceptions or beliefs about their mathematical aptitude are commonly classified as mathematics self-efficacy. Conversely, metacognitive awareness is characterized as a phenomenon that presents itself in a variety of ways as people engage with objects and circumstances in their everyday lives. The objective of this quantitative research was to evaluate the reliability of a self-efficacy and metacognitive awareness test administered to 184 undergraduate university students. In completing tasks in mathematical reasoning, students clearly discriminated between their self-efficacy and metacognitive awareness. Self-efficacy demonstrated discriminant and convergent validity in these quantitative investigations, which conforms to the Bandura (1993) theory and contains three dimensions: course self-efficacy, test self-efficacy, and future self-efficacy. Metacognitive awareness shows discriminant and convergent validity, which relates to Flavell (1979) theory and contains six factors: procedural knowledge, declarative knowledge, conditional knowledge, monitoring, planning, and evaluation. The casual correlation approach was used in the research design to explore the influence of metacognitive awareness and self-efficacy on mathematical thinking. The Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency reliability research demonstrated that the self-efficacy and metacognitive awareness instrument that was developed was exceptionally reliable and may be used by researchers to assess self-efficacy and metacognitive awareness among university students.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Article Type: Research Article

EURASIA J Math Sci Tech Ed, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 9, Article No: em2153

Publication date: 16 Aug 2022

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