In recent years, China’s coal mine safety accidents are frequently. Human factors are the main cause of coal mine safety accidents, and miners’ unsafe behavior is one of the main forms of human factors. It is necessary to conduct in-depth study on the unsafe behavior of miners to ensure the safety of coal mine. In this study, the relationship between coal miners’ subjective well-being and unsafe behavior was examined from the perspective of ordinary miners’ well-being. And then the influencing factors of miners’ unsafe behavior were analyzed. Two hundred miners were selected randomly for this study in Datong Coal Mine Group of Shanxi Province. Then, a questionnaire was completed by the 200 miners respectively, and a valid sample of 184 responses was collected. SPSS23.0 software was used to organize and analyze these data. The conclusions show that the hypotheses were all confirmed, and subjective well-being has a significant impact on miners’ unsafe behavior, positive emotion has a negative influence on miners’ unsafe behavior, negative emotion has a significant positive impact on miners’ unsafe behavior, and life satisfaction has a significant negative relationship with miners’ unsafe behavior. Thus, some countermeasures were put forward for coal mine managers to enhance miners’ subjective well-being and reduce their unsafe behaviors.